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07 Avr Significant Gas Fired Generation Required During Transition To Zero Carbon

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2021
National Energy and Climate Plan, Download file The Irish Government has adopted a challenging target of having 70% of the country’s electricity produced from renewable sources (mainly wind and solar) by 2030. In its newly published report, ‘The Challenge of High Levels of Renewable Electricity in Ireland’s Electricity System’ The Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE), seeks to identify the risks in the transition to renewable electricity and recommend prudent actions by policy makers. There is broad agreement that long term decarbonisation of the planet’s energy systems requires a major shift to electricity as an energy vector. Ireland is planning to have nine hundred thousand electric vehicles on the road by 2030 as well as six hundred thousand heat pumps. Don Moore says “In this context, a failure of the power system would have a catastrophic effect on normal economic life. In order to maintain necessary reliability standards while replacing coal, oil and peat generation, Ireland will require significant gas fired generation for the next two decades.” Gas consumption will reduce as generating units will operate with lower load factors, but peak gas demand for power generation will be significantly more than today. Don Moore states that “Power system reliability is therefore critically dependent on secure primary energy supplies (natural gas) to the Island of Ireland”. By 2030, the island of Ireland will be almost totally dependent on Great Britain (GB) for its gas supply. GB in turn will import up to 75% of its gas due to declining North Sea production. In the Academy’s view, developing a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal in Ireland is highly advisable to ensure secure, diverse and cost-effective gas supplies. There are several major LNG exporting counties, such as Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, and Russia which have enormous gas reserves, and Don Moore says “ Ireland is one of the very few maritime countries in Europe which does not have an LNG import facility”. The global LNG market is now extremely competitive with over 20 exporting countries and more than 40 importing countries. Alternatives to gas fired generation to support 70% renewable electricity have been proposed, these include: • Pumped Hydro Storage • Compressed Air Storage • Battery Storage • Carbon Capture and Storage • Increased Interconnection • Hydrogen Fuel Options • Biofuels • Marine Energy (Wave/Tidal) • Nuclear Power The Academy’s considered conclusion is that none of these options can be implemented on a scale that would significantly reduce Ireland’s gas fired generation by 2030.
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28 Mai The challenge of wood based construction

Real Academia de Ingenieria (Spain) (RAI)
2010
Wood like structural element. The tree, anatomy and stresses. Influence of physical and mechanical factors in wood properties. Previous and current conditions: Evolution of joining methods. The laminated stuck wood and its adhesives. Current State. Design strategies. Constructive aspects. Solutions to avoid or neutralize perpendicular traction presence. Swelling and wastage. Endurance. Protection against fire. Traditional joints categories. Mechanical Unions. Peg unions. Surface connectors.
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28 Mai Energy configuration of buildings (ECB) from concept to implementation / Configurarea energetica a cladirilor (CEC) de la concept la aplicare

Romanian Academy of Technical Sciences (ASTR)
2012
The paper presents the purpose and objectives of the energetic modernization of the existing building activities and design principles of the new buildings, characterized by high Energy and Environment performance.
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28 Mai Considerations on the district heating system of Bucharest / Consideratii privind sistemul de alimentare centralizata cu energie termica al Mun. Bucuresti

Romanian Academy of Technical Sciences (ASTR)
2012
The paper presents the district heating system (SACET) of Bucharest, one of the largest systems in Europe, and its associated problems. The wrong decisions of economic and energy policy affecting this energy sub-sector in Romania are briefly discussed, technical and economic characteristics of SACET Bucharest, general studies and solutions to restructure and make more efficient the system, considering its extremely high social impact.
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