Croatian Academy of Engineering (HATZ) 2017Vol. 12(1) 2017 - 20 pages - English Food producers are meeting numerous challenges nowadays, starting from increasing world population, eating habits, climatic changes, use of agricultural products in energy production, migration, increasing energy costs etc. Along with all these challenges and limited resources, food producers are obliged to produce sufficient quantities of safe and high quality food for the increasing world population. On the other hand, food industry generates large quantities of by-products that represent a large environmental problem, solved in most cases through landfills, composting, or animal feed. A large quantity of contemporary research deals with this issue and the top subject of many documents is the utilization of food industry by-products as potential raw materials for food. The reasons for this include the fact that many by-products contain a variety of nutrients, making them valuable as raw materials in the production and development of new products, among other reasons such as increasing food prices, large quantities of generated by-products, increasing cost of waste management, and increasing environmental concerns. Maintaining the quality of a product requires constant generation of certain quantities of by-products. These quantities are constantly growing, as the result of the increasing food production. The application of food industry by-products in food production results in various changes in products, depending on both the properties of the by-product, which includes the mode of application, and production conditions. To develop a product with desirable organoleptic characteristics, one has to know the properties of the raw materials and processes, and how to adjust recipes and introduce new technologies and/or processes, in order to obtain products as similar to the original as possible. During the realization of the project Application of Food Industry By-products in the Development of Functional and Environmentally Friendly Extruded Food Products and Additives (funded by the Croatian Science Foundation), we used raw materials and technologies that enabled us to develop products with increased nutritional value and desirable organoleptic characteristics. ”Green” technologies (supercritical CO2 extraction, extrusion with supercritical CO2) were used in by-product preparation and product finalization in order to obtain safe, high quality products and modified half-products that may be used in food production.
Croatian Academy of Engineering (HATZ) 2017Vol. 12(2) 2017 - 20 pages - English Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary field combining knowledge of engineering (electrical engineering, computer science, information and communication technology, physics, chemistry ...), biology and medicine. The development of medical science, health service organisation and health care at the turn of this century is closely and inseparably linked to the development of electronic, computer, information and communication technologies. Electrical equipment and accessories are an integral part of almost every medical examination/intervention, and computer and information and communication systems are now an inseparable part of everyday life. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the basic neurophysiological methods of registration of the brain bioelectric activity. It was first mentioned in the thirties of the last century in the works of neuropsychiatrist Hans Berger. He was recording, using sensitive galvanometer, the first signals that belong to the alpha frequency range, according to today’s classification. EEG as a diagnostic method begins routinely carried out with the first commercially available electroencephalograph in the fifties of the last century. Here we must point out Professor Ante Šantić who already in 1957, as an employee of the Institute of Electrical Engineering in Zagreb, designed and commercialised 12 channel electroencephalograph, the first in South-eastern/Central Europe. Upon arrival at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zagreb, in 1972 he founded the Laboratory for Biomedical Electronics and starts lecturing on Biomedical Electronics, for which he wrote the textbook of the same name, and thus lays the foundation of biomedical engineering in Croatia. Technological progress made it possible to process electroencephalographic signals on the digital computer. Already in the beginning of the seventies, it was carried out on the PDP-8 computer by Prof. Stanko Tonković, PhD, Dipl Eng, an employee of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Zagreb, and Velimir Išgum, PhD, Dipl Eng, an employee of the Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb. Velimir Išgum, PhD, continues his career in the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, where he participated in the founding of the Laboratory of evoked potentials. Additionally, he founded the Laboratory for Cognitive and Experimental Neurophysiology. Several papers listed thereafter represent a continuation of research that started in these laboratories. Initiation and development of this inter- and multi-disciplinary area would be impossible without the support and active participation of medical doctors. This high quality and fruitful collaboration took place to this day, which is directly visible in the presented papers. The following papers presented some of the current research projects in the field of neurophysiology that uses measurement, processing and analysis of the electroencephalographic signals. The first paper presents several modalities for brain-computer interface (BCI), very actively investigated area in the last years. The following paper deals with the application of invasive EEG monitoring in the surgical treatment of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The third document describes the use of the evoked potentials in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The fourth paper describes the diagnostic value of vibration evoked potentials, while the fifth one deals with auditory evoked potentials with a focus on the used stimuli and paradigms.
Croatian Academy of Engineering (HATZ) 2017Vol. 12(3) 2017 - 20 pages - English Biomedical engineering is one of the fastest developing fields, which touches many specialties and provides a basis for the faster development of medical science. Close and fruitful cooperation of medical doctors and engineers results in team synergy, thus enabling faster progress than in the case when everyone works separately in their own “silos”. At the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture we recognized the necessity of such cooperation mora than ten years ago. Today, our several engineer teams are t5eamed up with medical doctors in projects related to medicine. As pathological conditions in the cardiovascular system (such as atherosclerosis, formation of aneurysms, valvular heart diseases, ect.) are strongly interlinked with the hemodynamics of the cardiovascular system and tissue remodelling, they attract of our departments. The Department of Fluid Mechanics is now in charge of hemodynamics and the Department of Mechanics is in charge of tissue remodelling and formation of aneurysms. The papers below provide the Department of Fluid Mechanics team with a short overview over research activities and results in the field of hemodynamic modelling of the cardiovascular system. we have developed models and numerical methods with different levels of complexity: from a lumped parameter model to one-dimensional and quasi two-dimensional model. The simplest lumped parameter model is important for clinicials, since it describes the principal part of the cardiovascular systems with a relatively small number of parameters, each having a clear physiological meaning crucial to understand the system function. Such a model is being applied in an ongoing project considering non-invasive method for the model parameter identification of pulmonary circulation in subjects with pulmonary hypertension. The problem with one-dimensional and three-dimensional models is that they require more input data (e.g. space variation of blood vessel diameter and wall properties) that cannot be easily measured, but still such models are very important for understanding wave phenomena in the arterial tree and for estimating the local flow parameters, important for the prediction of some diseases (such as aneurysm growth). The developed models and methods are a good basis for prospective cooperation with the University of Zagreb, School of Medicine with purpose of collaborative research on artificial heart development and education of prospective medical engineering students.
Croatian Academy of Engineering (HATZ) 2018The significant aim of this edition is to make a contribution to marking the 25th anniversary of our Academy through the organizational and historical review of activities over the past years and to make you familiar with the type and membership of the Academy. In addition to the informative presentation of the activities, an insight into the part of our members' scientific work is given so that the Annual also contains a series of recent original papers of some of our members, giving the Academy additional scientific value. The Annual presents a brief description of our normative acts with special reference to the Statute of the Academy. Three comprehensive papers are dedicated to the twenty-five-year history of the Croatian Academy of Engineering described through the memories of the previous historical presidents. The following chapter “National Awards and Decorations of the Members of the Croatian Academy of Engineering 1993-2018” and “Recipients of the Awards of the Academy 2002-2018” brings a list of our members who are the winners of social awards and decorations, and especially of traditional awards made by our Academy for years. It is an opportunity for our readers of the Jubilee Annual to get acquainted with our members and their number in the special chapter 'Members of the Academy in 2018 (Full Members of the Academy, Elected Members of the Academy, Emeriti of the Academy and Associates of the Academy in 2018 ', ' Honorary Members of the Academy in 2018 ',' Deceased Members of the Academy (all categories) 1993-2018’. As the Academy maintains cooperation with the rest of the scientific community, and especially with the economy, the next chapter 'Supporting Members of the Academy in 2018' also presents our current corporate members in the category of supporting members of the Academy. In 2017 the current leadership, i.e. the Governing Board, was elected, whose mandate lasts up to 2021. As this jubilee year falls within the scope of this mandate, we have found it desirable to present a shortened election program of work of the new Governing Board to give the reader an insight into the current activities of the Academy as presented at the end of the first part of the Annual in 'A Short Overview of the Work of the Governing Board of the Croatian Academy of Engineering 2017-2021 '. In order to become more familiar with the scope of the activities of our members whose quality and number we are proud of, the last part of the Annual presents in the form of 'Who is Who' in our Academy, as we have done earlier, the basic information about our members and the reader will surely then gain the impression of the significance of the Croatian Academy of Engineering today.
Croatian Academy of Engineering (HATZ) 2018The third edition has been substantially expanded and supplemented by research into a few unexplained events from the life of Faust Vrancic and his family. It is particularly concerned with the origin of his family and the family coat of arms, his initial form and later changes. Various claims and representations of his works are also considered. The book also points out some questions historians have no answers yet. In the analysis of the work of renaissance engineers, a common occurrence of the use of ideas of contemporaries or predecessors was noted, without mentioning their name. In the past few years scientists are investigating these cases and the results greatly change the image of the greats of that age, among whom are Francesco di Gorgio Martini and Leonardo da Vinci. For this reason, chapter 3.2 is added in the book The common phenomenon of using other ideas and solutions with a few examples that point to this phenomenon. This is necessary because this book deals with the models Faust Vrančić had, his improvements to these assumed ideas, as well as by emphasizing his original works.