Society and Technology

07 Avr Significant Gas Fired Generation Required During Transition To Zero Carbon

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2021
National Energy and Climate Plan, Download file The Irish Government has adopted a challenging target of having 70% of the country’s electricity produced from renewable sources (mainly wind and solar) by 2030. In its newly published report, ‘The Challenge of High Levels of Renewable Electricity in Ireland’s Electricity System’ The Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE), seeks to identify the risks in the transition to renewable electricity and recommend prudent actions by policy makers. There is broad agreement that long term decarbonisation of the planet’s energy systems requires a major shift to electricity as an energy vector. Ireland is planning to have nine hundred thousand electric vehicles on the road by 2030 as well as six hundred thousand heat pumps. Don Moore says “In this context, a failure of the power system would have a catastrophic effect on normal economic life. In order to maintain necessary reliability standards while replacing coal, oil and peat generation, Ireland will require significant gas fired generation for the next two decades.” Gas consumption will reduce as generating units will operate with lower load factors, but peak gas demand for power generation will be significantly more than today. Don Moore states that “Power system reliability is therefore critically dependent on secure primary energy supplies (natural gas) to the Island of Ireland”. By 2030, the island of Ireland will be almost totally dependent on Great Britain (GB) for its gas supply. GB in turn will import up to 75% of its gas due to declining North Sea production. In the Academy’s view, developing a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal in Ireland is highly advisable to ensure secure, diverse and cost-effective gas supplies. There are several major LNG exporting counties, such as Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, and Russia which have enormous gas reserves, and Don Moore says “ Ireland is one of the very few maritime countries in Europe which does not have an LNG import facility”. The global LNG market is now extremely competitive with over 20 exporting countries and more than 40 importing countries. Alternatives to gas fired generation to support 70% renewable electricity have been proposed, these include: • Pumped Hydro Storage • Compressed Air Storage • Battery Storage • Carbon Capture and Storage • Increased Interconnection • Hydrogen Fuel Options • Biofuels • Marine Energy (Wave/Tidal) • Nuclear Power The Academy’s considered conclusion is that none of these options can be implemented on a scale that would significantly reduce Ireland’s gas fired generation by 2030.
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21 Oct Population Growth, Climate and World Food Supply

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2011
This report studies the possibility to adequately feed 9 billion people in 2050, and shows that it is feasible, on certain conditions: - Give priority to the agricultural question among the political concerns of nations and set up ambitious programmes of agricultural development in the poorest countries. - Subsidize, for short periods, certain local agricultural markets, in southern countries whose populations live in self-sufficiency with a small production surplus. - Attenuate the effects of speculation in agricultural markets by better regulation of raw-material futures markets. - Build up stocks to constitute regional, or even family, reserves to avoid the risks of chronic deficits. - Maintain the strong production capacities of European agriculture but redirect it towards healthy and ecologically acceptable food production; - Encourage everybody to eat less animal food products; strengthen regulations governing agro-food industries and collective food preparation; combat waste, currently up to 30% of the production. - Tightly control or ban first-generation bio-fuels which are in direct competition with food production but continue research on 2nd and 3rd generation products. - Create an Observatory for Predicting World Food Situations and Markets to independently observe developments, interpret evolutions, propose hypotheses and scenarios, and anticipate dangers and suggest lines of solution. These recommendations are both for the public authorities and the entire civil society: individual behaviour must primarily change.
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21 Oct The Real Academia de Ingenieria headquarters. The history of the Villamagna Palace

Real Academia de Ingenieria (Spain) (RAI)
2009
The urban environment of Villafranca Marquises’ Palace up to the 19th Century. Palace building, structure, decoration and life stages. A new nobility stage. The property breaking down. Bibliography.
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21 Oct Philosophy of Engineering: Volume 1 of the proceedings of a series of seminars held at The Royal Academy of Engineering

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2010
The papers in this volume are from the first three of a series of seminars in the philosophy of engineering organised by The Royal Academy of Engineering. The papers were given by philosophers and engineers with an interest in the philosophy of engineering who were invited to speak on a given theme, as described below. The results are a series of papers of great variety, showing a range of different perspectives on the philosophical issues that engineering raises. It is hoped that these will spark philosophical interest and will lead to further, deeper consideration of the topics explored in the seminars.
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21 Oct Privacy and Prejudice

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2010
This report presents the findings of the public attitudes research project that was embedded within the wider engagement programme to explore young people’s views on the development of an EPR system in the UK and its use in medical research.  A number of questions emerged and recommendations were made based on the findings of this report. The report concludes that these need to be addressed by the National Health Service (NHS), the commissioners and regulators of EPRs, the engineers and developers that will design and build the records systems and databases, and the users and medical researchers that will have access to the data if the system is to be one that has wide support amongst the younger generation. Furthermore, the responses to these questions and recommendations need to be communicated to young people, so that they can make an informed choice about their records.
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21 Oct Homage to a notorious scientist and spanish Navy Officer, Jorge Juan y Santacilia

Real Academia de Ingenieria (Spain) (RAI)
2010
Jorge Juan's life and work. The Spanish Navy in the 18th Century. Jorge Juan: mathematician and astronomer. Naval engineering and naval engineers. Jorge Juan and naval engineers. "Navigation Compendium" by Jorge Juan and "Secret News of America …" by Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. Naval architecture at maritime examination. Mechanics of the fluids at maritime examination. Warship evolution.
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21 Oct Acceptance of Technology and Infrastructures

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2011
There is hardly another subject in the context of new technologies that worries the public more than the presumed risks or impact on people’s familiar living surroundings. Whereas the focus of the resistance has been centered on nuclear power, carbon capture and carbon storage and green genetic engineering up to now, the expansion of renewable energies is coming increasingly under fire; e.g. by protests against new power grids and storage facilities. The same applies to mobility-related infrastructure projects; the latest instance was the particularly high-profile protest against “Stuttgart 21.” The statement by the Academy of Science and Engineering on hand not only analyzes the patterns of current acceptance discussions. It also offers recommendations for action to be taken for the improvement of the dialogue of social groups—including the communication on future topics such as nanotechnology or synthetic biology.
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21 Oct Business motivations for engaging the public in science and engineering

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2011
The results of this study show that the way to build public engagement capacity with business is to focus on purpose rather than process. The idea of framing any discussion around public engagement is likely to be ineffective: businesses will respond to specific and distinct projects that meet their business objectives. As such, any strategy to engage business needs to think in terms of educational goals, policy effectiveness, social outcomes and how these align to business goals and motivations. The process to achieve this will follow from understanding those needs.
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21 Oct Engineering the Olympics

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2011
The 2011 Lloyd’s Register Educational Trust Lecture.  The construction work for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is a complex job. It has been compared to building two of the Heathrow Terminal 5 in half the time.  This lecture was delivered by John Armitt, Chairman of the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), the body responsible for delivering this work. In his lecture he will describe the various engineering and construction challenges from governance, land assembly, budget agreement, stakeholder relations, planning, programme management and how they were overcome.
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21 Oct Achieving excellence in engineering education: the ingredients of successful change

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2012
France is a major player in nuclear physics and its applications, in particular in the electro-nuclear energy domain. The monograph is a widely accessible synthesis of the nuclear energy sector development in France. It describes the stakes of nuclear technologies and the challenges to overcome to make political and technical choices. The author analyses the importance of organisational structures and of the human factors to successfully develop programs and to overcome difficulties.
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