Energy and Climate Change

07 Avr Significant Gas Fired Generation Required During Transition To Zero Carbon

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2021
National Energy and Climate Plan, Download file The Irish Government has adopted a challenging target of having 70% of the country’s electricity produced from renewable sources (mainly wind and solar) by 2030. In its newly published report, ‘The Challenge of High Levels of Renewable Electricity in Ireland’s Electricity System’ The Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE), seeks to identify the risks in the transition to renewable electricity and recommend prudent actions by policy makers. There is broad agreement that long term decarbonisation of the planet’s energy systems requires a major shift to electricity as an energy vector. Ireland is planning to have nine hundred thousand electric vehicles on the road by 2030 as well as six hundred thousand heat pumps. Don Moore says “In this context, a failure of the power system would have a catastrophic effect on normal economic life. In order to maintain necessary reliability standards while replacing coal, oil and peat generation, Ireland will require significant gas fired generation for the next two decades.” Gas consumption will reduce as generating units will operate with lower load factors, but peak gas demand for power generation will be significantly more than today. Don Moore states that “Power system reliability is therefore critically dependent on secure primary energy supplies (natural gas) to the Island of Ireland”. By 2030, the island of Ireland will be almost totally dependent on Great Britain (GB) for its gas supply. GB in turn will import up to 75% of its gas due to declining North Sea production. In the Academy’s view, developing a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal in Ireland is highly advisable to ensure secure, diverse and cost-effective gas supplies. There are several major LNG exporting counties, such as Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, and Russia which have enormous gas reserves, and Don Moore says “ Ireland is one of the very few maritime countries in Europe which does not have an LNG import facility”. The global LNG market is now extremely competitive with over 20 exporting countries and more than 40 importing countries. Alternatives to gas fired generation to support 70% renewable electricity have been proposed, these include: • Pumped Hydro Storage • Compressed Air Storage • Battery Storage • Carbon Capture and Storage • Increased Interconnection • Hydrogen Fuel Options • Biofuels • Marine Energy (Wave/Tidal) • Nuclear Power The Academy’s considered conclusion is that none of these options can be implemented on a scale that would significantly reduce Ireland’s gas fired generation by 2030.
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18 Oct Hans Werthén – One of Sweden’s most prominent industrialists

Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering (IVA)
2015
A pamphlet produced by the Hans Werthén Fund at IVA, 2015, 16 pp.
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18 Oct Bio energies development: Instruments for the feasibility analysis of energy conversion facilities.

Engineering Academy of Slovenia (IAS)
2009
The aim of the European Parliament’s “climate-energy pack”, whose target is to increase up to 20% renewable energy consumptions within the 2020, attributes to biomass a basic role in the future energy scenarios. Therefore, the use of bio energies represents, currently, an interesting opportunity not only for environmental and economic benefits, but also for a local development. The seminar illustrates the present opportunities to develop the three energy chains of wood biomass, biogas and liquid biofuels, as well as to illustrate some of the most interesting experiences realised in Regione Veneto. During the seminar, much time is devoted to the presentation of two software, realised by Itabia and CRPA, for the feasibility evaluation and the technical-economic analysis concerning the realisation of energy conversion plants, with particular attention to biogas production.
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18 Oct Position Paper on Slovenian Energy Policy

Engineering Academy of Slovenia (IAS)
2009
Slovenia needs an effective energy policy, as reliable energy supply, effective and endurable consumption and environment protection are crucial elements of quality economic development of Slovenia. Reduction of energy dependence and successful energy strategy can be provided by efficient usage of energy and a high share of local classical and renewable sources.
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18 Oct Energy efficiency and savings in housing and buildings

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2009
The NATF discusses in this report the options to reduce energy consumption and to divide by 4, in 2040, CO2 emissions in domestic and tertiary buildings. The adapted technologies exist already today. The document recommends multiple specific actions, in particular towards public authorities, companies and professional federations. It underlines the essential necessity of interactions between the housing sector and those of transportation and urbanism.
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18 Oct Hydro- and wind power

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2009
This report describes production and storage conditions of these renewable energies. It provides details of their environmental impacts and layouts its implementation in the world. It discusses political stakes and underlines the need to respect each country’s sovereignty along with the recognition of the role of major international and regional institutions in the durable development of our planet.
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18 Oct A century of nuclear power production

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2009
France is a major player in nuclear physics and its applications, in particular in the electro-nuclear energy domain. The monograph is a widely accessible synthesis of the nuclear energy sector development in France. It describes the stakes of nuclear technologies and the challenges to overcome to make political and technical choices. The author analyses the importance of organisational structures and of the human factors to successfully develop programs and to overcome difficulties.
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18 Oct Concept for an Integrated Energy Research Program for Germany

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2009
The Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, has commissioned acatech and the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina with the crafting of the concept for an integrated energy research program in autumn of 2008. The two academies were requested to identify the most important research questions between the apparently contradictory priorities of secure and affordable energy supply and the federal government’s climate protection goals. In so doing, the social, legal and economic aspects as well as questions of acceptance with regard to energy supply were to be addressed as well. Hence the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities as a representative of the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities was integrated for the crafting of an initial concept draft in which around 100 scientists from universities, non-university research institutes, industry as well as civil society participated.
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18 Oct Review of Ireland’s Energy Policy in the Context of the Changing Economy

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2009
This Report follows on from the Report on Future Energy Policy in Ireland published by the Irish Academy of Engineering in March 2006. The selected topics contained in the Report relate to areas of more immediate priority in the context of the changing economy. The Academy published a series of follow‐up, supplementary reports on energy matters over the next two years. This Report is based on the consensus view of the Irish Academy of Engineering’s Steering Committee on Energy (see inside back cover for details of the Committee). They were assisted in addressing this highly complex subject by a number of other parties, whose contribution is acknowledged on the inside back cover. The Report does not necessarily reflect the personal views of all the Academy members.
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18 Oct Irish Energy Policy – Update on Electricity Price Competitiveness

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2009
In June 2009 the Irish Academy of Engineering published a review of Ireland’s energy policy. This review was carried out in the context of the major changes taking place in Ireland’s economy and focussed especially on energy price competitiveness. In particular the review drew attention to the growing lack of competitiveness of Irish electricity prices when compared to EU averages and strongly suggested a re‐examination of government policies in light of the urgent need to restore the country’s international competitiveness. The Academy  updated its analysis based on Eurostat statistics for 2009.
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