Technologies and Development for Developing Countries

07 Avr Significant Gas Fired Generation Required During Transition To Zero Carbon

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2021
National Energy and Climate Plan, Download file The Irish Government has adopted a challenging target of having 70% of the country’s electricity produced from renewable sources (mainly wind and solar) by 2030. In its newly published report, ‘The Challenge of High Levels of Renewable Electricity in Ireland’s Electricity System’ The Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE), seeks to identify the risks in the transition to renewable electricity and recommend prudent actions by policy makers. There is broad agreement that long term decarbonisation of the planet’s energy systems requires a major shift to electricity as an energy vector. Ireland is planning to have nine hundred thousand electric vehicles on the road by 2030 as well as six hundred thousand heat pumps. Don Moore says “In this context, a failure of the power system would have a catastrophic effect on normal economic life. In order to maintain necessary reliability standards while replacing coal, oil and peat generation, Ireland will require significant gas fired generation for the next two decades.” Gas consumption will reduce as generating units will operate with lower load factors, but peak gas demand for power generation will be significantly more than today. Don Moore states that “Power system reliability is therefore critically dependent on secure primary energy supplies (natural gas) to the Island of Ireland”. By 2030, the island of Ireland will be almost totally dependent on Great Britain (GB) for its gas supply. GB in turn will import up to 75% of its gas due to declining North Sea production. In the Academy’s view, developing a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal in Ireland is highly advisable to ensure secure, diverse and cost-effective gas supplies. There are several major LNG exporting counties, such as Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, and Russia which have enormous gas reserves, and Don Moore says “ Ireland is one of the very few maritime countries in Europe which does not have an LNG import facility”. The global LNG market is now extremely competitive with over 20 exporting countries and more than 40 importing countries. Alternatives to gas fired generation to support 70% renewable electricity have been proposed, these include: • Pumped Hydro Storage • Compressed Air Storage • Battery Storage • Carbon Capture and Storage • Increased Interconnection • Hydrogen Fuel Options • Biofuels • Marine Energy (Wave/Tidal) • Nuclear Power The Academy’s considered conclusion is that none of these options can be implemented on a scale that would significantly reduce Ireland’s gas fired generation by 2030.
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01 Déc The journey to an autonomous transport system

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2020
Authors: National Engineering Policy Centre The Safety and ethics of autonomous systems project overview outlined a need for further sectoral exploration of the role autonomous systems could play. This output is the first of a series of sector specific deep dives. This summary sets out the current technological state of the art, domain challenges such as decision making time and software ownership, and crosscutting challenges such as safety assurance, ethical considerations and public perception.
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01 Août Safer complex systems

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2020
Authors: Professor John McDermid OBE FREng, Dr Philip Garnett, Professor Simon Burton, Dr Rob Weaver An initial framework for understanding and improving the safety of complex, interconnected systems in a rapidly changing and uncertain world.
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01 Juin Sustainable living places

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2020
Authors: National Engineering Policy Centre (see report for working group members) Recognising that there are many different systems approaches, this National Engineering Policy Centre (NEPC) report presents a systemic perspective on housing in the UK and the wider planning and infrastructure system in which it is situated.
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28 Mai The challenge of wood based construction

Real Academia de Ingenieria (Spain) (RAI)
2010
Wood like structural element. The tree, anatomy and stresses. Influence of physical and mechanical factors in wood properties. Previous and current conditions: Evolution of joining methods. The laminated stuck wood and its adhesives. Current State. Design strategies. Constructive aspects. Solutions to avoid or neutralize perpendicular traction presence. Swelling and wastage. Endurance. Protection against fire. Traditional joints categories. Mechanical Unions. Peg unions. Surface connectors.
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01 Mar Global engineering capability review

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2020
Authors: Economic Intelligence Unit, see report for full list of team Prepared by the Economist Intelligence Unit, this report measures the abilities of 99 countries to conduct key engineering activities in a safe and innovative way.
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22 Oct Food for All Forever

Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)
2010
The world population is increasing and with this the amount of mouths to feed. How do we ensure that our food systems are environmentally, economically and socially sustainable; and that the world’s poorest people are no longer hungry? The answer to this enormous question contains the right technological solutions and massive investments in research combined with the right policy directions. The report gives seven elaborated recommendations. Some of the most important are: 1. Use appropriate technology and opportunities offered by science. 2. Massive investments in infrastructure in rural areas to be made. 3. Implementation of better policies that prevent distortions in trade and competition.
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22 Oct Scientific Development of Spin-Offs from Non-University Research Institutes

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2010
Innovations have a special significance in knowledge-based economies. The efficient knowledge and technology transfer from research to industry constitutes a decisive factor in the competition between the national economies. The commercial use of information via spin-offs in high-tech sectors plays a key part here. The study on hand on the economic development of spin-offs of non-university research institutes focuses primarily on spin-offs of the four main German research organizations: Fraunhofer Society, Helmholtz Community, Leibniz Community and Max Planck Society. The project was to (1) present the economic development of academic spin-offs on a systematic basis; (2) identify and analyze factors and events that exerted a decisive impact on this development; and (3) in particular, present the significance of early customer involvement for the development of the spin-offs.
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22 Oct Technologies for social development in isolated rural communities

Real Academia de Ingenieria (Spain) (RAI)
2011
Human development and international cooperation. The rural isolated communities. Suitable technologies and innovation for human development. Energy supply. Water and sanitation supplies. Access to ICT and network society services. Agriculture and forests management. Country and Landscape: the essential matrix. Towards an adequate technology to provide rural isolated communities with a basic habitability. Logistic and technology in humanitarian actions. The Spanish organizations and rural isolated communities’ development. Synthesis and outcomes. Sponsors’ point of view.
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21 Oct Industry 4.0 and Urban Development – The Case of India

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2015
Industry 4.0 and Advanced Manufacturing are topics of a high international relevance. They are currently intensively discussed both in the academic literature, and in practice within the framework of Industry 4.0 which refers to the so-called 4th industrial revolution. They depend to a high degree on the availability of adequate digital infrastructures and well-functioning logistics systems, and they have a number of repercussions on cities and regions.
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