CNR, INFN, ITT and Politecnico di Torino consortium
The guide aims at a detailed mapping of infrastructural actors of the research and innovation system in Lombardy region. Enterprises are in the center of the innovation process: they have the responsibility and the interest in converting the results of R&D activities in goods and services for the market, and of creating value through the production and commercialization of new products. But this is not enough, other institutions are indispensable in an advanced and effective innovation system. First of all universities and public research organizations which supply the necessary higher education to researchers, but also other structures and services are needed: normative, certification, patent offices, ICT infrastructures, statistics, test and measurements centers, as well as technology transfer structures, incubators, science parks. And on other levels: financial institutions, as seed and venture capital organizations, with specialization in the creation of and support to high tech start up and spin off companies.