Co-studies

21 Oct Internet Privacy. Options for adequate realisation

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2013
A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the acatech project “Internet Privacy – A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet.” The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the Internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.
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21 Oct Smart Service Welt Recommendations for the Strategic Initiative Web-based Services for Business

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2014
Information and communication technology has become an integral part of our industry and society as a whole. Digitally enabled products, processes and services are increasingly being combined in innovative ways to create on-demand, personalised Smart Services that meet the needs of individual consumers. These new services and business models make use of the growing volume of data that is being captured every day in all areas of our private and working lives. The disruptive impact of Smart Services is already being keenly felt in the retail trade, for example in online marketplaces. However, the changes are also affecting the traditional business models of Germany’s flagship industries, such as the automotive, mechanical engineering, chemicals, electrical engineering, medical technology, logistics and energy technology industries, not to mention the rest of the economy. These industries are already benefiting from the support of Webbased services. In the not too distant future, however, the business models of suppliers, manufacturers and operators alike will be faced with a genuine revolution as a result of being systematically digitised, analysed, augmented with Smart Products and Services and networked with each other.
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21 Oct Resilien-Tech. “Resilience by Design”: a strategy for the technology issues of the future”

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2014
The digital networks that characterise today’s world, together with the demographic change occurring in Germany and the growing frequency of extreme events are resulting in the emergence of new threats that are increasing the vulnerability of our modern industrialised society. Combined with the continual diversification of safety and security risks, this means that disasters are capable of causing ever more serious harm. In order to continue protecting people and infrastructure against future environmental, economic and social damage, it will be necessary to firmly embed preventive measures in our society and ensure that the right lessons are learned from the past. The concept of resilience provides a holistic approach to this problem that attaches equal importance to the technological and social dimensions and helps to minimise the threats to our safety and security. Accordingly, acatech – National Academy of Science and Engineering launched the “Resilien-Tech” project with the aim of improving our understanding of this concept and enabling security researchers to put it to practical use.The authors of this STUDY analyse the concept of resilience from a civil security research perspective, with particular emphasis on the issue of critical infrastructure protection. They also identify concrete approaches to developing resilient technological and socioeconomic systems.
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21 Oct Living in a networked world. Integrated research agenda Cyber-Physical Systems (agendaCPS)

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2015
The rapid progress of information technology allows for increasingly powerful software intensive embedded systems (machines) executing integrated applications connected by and to global networks. Thus these systems are more and more networked among each other, but also with data and services on the Internet. Intelligent solutions originate which gather processes of the living environment by means of sensors and actuators, connect them to virtual software worlds and interpret, monitor and control these processes in interaction with people. In this way, so-called Cyber-Physical Systems evolve – a living in a networked world. The interlocking applications include smart cities, social infrastructures with integrated telemedicine care, enhanced connected mobility with fully or semi-autonomous driving cars and traffic systems, safety, security and privacy as well as networked production and the sustainable energy turnaround.
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21 Oct SMART SERVICE WELT Recommendations for the Strategic Initiative Web-based Services for Businesses Final Report Short Version

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2015
The Smart Service Welt 2025 vision focuses on manufacturing, both to provide continuity with the vision of Industrie 4.0 and because Germany is starting from a particularly strong position in this area. Nevertheless, it can also be directly carried over to other fields of application. Automated marketplaces for logistics service providers are already a reality in the private transport sector today and can be expected to become established in heavy goods transport in the future. Data-based optimisation of the value chain – covering everything from seed quantities and fertiliser type to the entire harvest processing and logistics chain – will become increasingly widespread in the agricultural sector. Healthcare will benefit from significant gains in effectiveness and efficiency as a result of both decentralized monitoring of patients’ condition through continuous data collection and personalised treatment thanks to the improved diagnoses enabled by intelligent algorithms. Contributors: Dirk, Stocksmeier, Wolfgang, Wahlster, August-Wilhelm, Scheer, Dieter, Schweer
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21 Oct Impact of ICT on world energy consumption

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2015
How does ICT impact on worldwide energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions? This is what NATF went to find out when auditioning French and foreign experts to evaluate the overall energy and environmental balance that is due to the ICT sector, considering the impacts generated by the operation of its various hardware and infrastructure, and the savings it spawns in other areas of activity. The final energy and carbon balance of ICT, the Academy report concludes, is clearly a positive one. In 2012, ICT accounted for 4.7% of worldwide electricity consumption, and a total carbon footprint of about 1.7 percent (including private, industry and telecom hardware and infrastructure and data centres). These numbers are on an upwards trend, but in smaller proportions than the growing use of ICT, thanks to its contribution to reduce these footprints in other areas of activities such as in the transport sector, buildings, manufacturing industries, or even dematerialised procedures. The report focuses on the (global) transport/mobility sector benefitting from digitisation in and around vehicles, with gradually reduced/optimised travel needs (example United States).  It also lists current lines of research aimed at better performance of computing, with lower energy consumption. Group Leader: Erol Gelenbe, Professor in the Dennis Gabor Chair Imperial College, London, and NATF Fellow and Yves Caseau, Director of the Digital Agency, AXA Group, and NATF Fellow
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21 Oct Big Data: a change of paradigm can hide another – Opportunities and threats related to the emergence of new ecosystems

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2015
Big Data implies a revolution in IT, reaching from technology to applications and practices, enabling the analysis of vast pools of "digital traces" to know customer intentions with unmatched precision. Data manipulation from smartphones and connected objects opens up new service opportunities and significant cost reductions of information systems.  While it is a major issue for sciences, politics and citizens, this report looks at the impact on businesses: mastering these methods permits a new immediacy in customer relationships and may leave enterprises less vulnerable to the GAFAs. Big data is: • a disruptive data-analysis methodology, in particular in marketing, replacing classic approaches by iterative loops in which detected patterns are immediately confronted with situations of implementation and judgement on operational effectiveness. • a new way of massive parallel data-centred programming and of designing algorithms, due to the: - treatment on a myriad of machines, - high-performance requirements and - need to develop algorithms through learning. • a major challenge and paradigm shift for Governments and companies, deserving strong support in terms of training and awareness. Technology and practice play key roles; new ways of working with an extremely wide scope need to be developed. Rapporteur : Yves Caseau, Director Digital Agency, Axa Group, and Fellow of NATF
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21 Oct Large Socio-Technical Systems

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2013
Large, networked Socio-Technical Systems (or LSTSs), often continental or even global in scale, such as railroad-, air traffic-, electric-, and telecommunications systems, and the internet, have modified life-styles and society. Citizens see them as combining sciences and technologies, offering essential value-for-money services. They have common characteristics: expected safe and no-break service quality; co-operation of a myriad of component parts, including agents. Success and vulnerability through complexification (national and European regulations, multiplication for each LSTS of autonomous agents) and inter-dependence (inroads by ICTs, liberalisation) go hand-in-hand. During the past 15 years, the drafting of new regulatory texts that promote sustainable development of the LSTSs, incorporating technical trends while reconciling local aspirations and nation-wide issues, has become increasingly difficult. NATF proposes: 1) An objective analysis of the experience from the last 20 years for each LSTS, covering operations, quality, costs, jobs, risk control, governance and regulation, crises situations/incidents and the degrees of interdependence with other LSTSs. 2) Exploring possible (global) trends for the next two decades including sustainable development. 3) Teach LSTSs to young people early on for a better appreciation, including of S&T and ongoing innovations. These proposals should contribute to better informed decision processes that benefit our children. Yves BAMBERGER (WP Chair and Draft author) – Scientific counsellor to EDF CEO – Fellow of the NATF
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18 Oct Global Water Security – an engineering perspective

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2010
This report addresses water security as a global issue as well as considering the situation of the UK in that context.  It makes the following six recommendations:  1. Inter-governmental bodies and key discussion fora must elevate the issues of water security in their strategies. 2. Water security should become a core component of UK policy making. 3. UK industry must show leadership on global water security. 4. The regulation of the water sector globally needs to have integrated water resource management and sustainability informed by a systems approach at its core. 5. The Government should bolster investment in the research and development of solutions to global water security.  6. The UK engineering institutions should ensure that their global memberships are appropriately equipped, through professional development, to apply a systems led approach to water engineering, incorporating the technical, geo-political, societal and ethical dimensions of the challenge.
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