Co-studies

17 Oct Annual Report 2014

Real Academia de Ingenieria (Spain) (RAI)
2015
 
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17 Oct Energy Vectors

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2015
Changes in energy procurement/uses have often followed differing ‘trajectories’ in different countries while being related by factors such as oil prices and climate change.  While these forces are still active, time-scales have shifted (e.g. for peak oil and gas). The Fukushima accident has recently shaken confidence into nuclear power. This Report proposes a robust methodology helping in situations of energy transition to make relevant choices on both economic and ecological levels. Focussing on the French situation, it defines Energy Vectors as the support system delivering energy in the form of electricity, petrol, gas, or heat, etc. to consumers and deals with the intermediary stage of vectors between energy sources (coal, gas, U, wind, hydro) and demand of final energy (for transport, heating, industrial processes, etc.). But end-consumers are often not aware of the source for the final energy they receive. Distinguishing between sources would allow economic and ecological competition (when C02 emissions carry a price-tag).  This report throws new light on the political decisions that must be taken and provides guidelines with a long-range relevance - the parametric structure allowing application to any given case. Group Leader: Gilbert Ruelle, Former Director of the Alstom Division Alternators, Honorary President of CREEBEL, and NATF Fellow
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17 Oct Methane

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
Strong variations of atmospheric concentrations of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, have accompanied glacial and interglacial periods. Such variations influence the timetable and magnitude of climate changes. The report describes and analyses natural and human-related sources and sinks of atmospheric methane with particular attention to potentially massive emissions from thawing permafrost in Arctic wetlands and marine methane hydrates (clathrates). The methane fluxes between main reservoirs and the atmosphere is measured via ground-based networks or from outer space, allowing a better understanding of evolving atmospheric concentrations and interaction between sinks and sources. As atmospheric methane is destroyed over time (half-life ~7 years), its CO2 equivalence, in terms of GHG-efficiency is not straight-forward, depending on the time-scale applied.  While increasing fossil fuel exploitation is an important methane source, emissions could be limited at reasonable cost.  Feedbacks from wetlands and soils are more difficult to control. A number of recommendations on how to limit methane release are made in areas such as agricultural practices, waste- and landfill management, biomass combustion, exploitation of coal, natural gas and oil. Carefully follow developments in boreal zones, especially regarding the possible exploitation of methane from permafrost and marine clathrates. Group Leader: Jean-Claude André, Former Director of the European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computing (CERFACS), and NATF Fellow
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17 Oct Report of the National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) – First contribution to the Energy Transition National Debate

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2014
Changes in world-wide energy production and utilisation are partly imposed (emerging countries’ energy needs, depletion of some oil/gas fields), or voluntarily implemented (energy autonomy, climate-change policy, industrial competition). France has launched a nation-wide debate on energy-policies with the participation of NATF. This document is a first contribution. It examines also the policy paths chosen respectively by the USA and Germany. Some of the EU 20-20-20, the EU “Roadmap to 2050”, as well as self-imposed energy targets can be achieved through demand-control and energy-efficiency, i.e. better (including older) building insulation, more efficient household appliances, direct heating, thermal solar panels, heat pumps, etc. While new urban areas need to be energy-lean with little commuting requirements, meeting these requirements has a price and needs societal commitment. Fossil fuels should be kept for transport and chemical industry sectors. Vehicles will increasingly use electricity or biofuels. Industrialists stabilise energy requirements through improvement of production processes. French nuclear power capacity will continue, but move to more flexibility, compensating for the intermittency of wind- and solar power. “Smart” grids and non-intermittent renewable energy sources should contribute to power stability. Total savings in French energy consumption could attain –15% by 2025 and –30% by 2050. The final goal is the reduction of the GHG emissions at the least cost. Working-group leader: Bernard Tardieu, Honorary President Coyne & Bellier, President of the Committee on Energy & Climate Change, and NATF Fellow
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17 Oct Technologies and Climate Change – Solutions for Mitigation and Adaptation

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
The report takes stock of available or future technologies for mitigating climate change. First conclusion: climate-engineering, in the current state of knowledge, is not an alternative. Then it identifies the most favourable conditions, especially in the most contributing sectors, for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and promoting preventive adaptation measures, including a carbon emission penalty. The cost of increased energy efficiency must be less than the value of the energy saved and, as the case may be, the worth of CO2 not emitted. The same cost-benefit analysis should apply for any mitigation technology considered. Preventive adaptation measures are possible in agriculture, forestry, energy, urban environment, manufacturing, coastal protection, access to safe water, resources management, etc. Moreover, involving civil society (lifestyles and behaviours) will play an important role in reducing GHG emissions. And we must not forget technologies in developing countries, which are often more vulnerable to climate change than the richer developed countries. Working-group leaders: Marion Guillou, President of the Board of the Agronomic, Veterinary and Forest Institute of France – AGREENIUM; and Alain Pavé, University professor and former Research director at CNRS – both are NATF Fellows
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17 Oct Biogas

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
The 14 members of the NATF working group on biogas published its report in early 2016.  Historically speaking, biogas, resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, has been known since the late 18th century, when Alessandro Volta analysed the composition of swamp gas, finding methane as the main component.  In France and India, the exploitation of this process through bacterial “fermentation” in digesters started in the late 19th century while China builds a whole infrastructure around biogas, but always on a local scale, taking advantage of carbon credits from European industry for their funding.  In Europe, the production of biogas on an industrial scale takes off somewhere between 1980 and 1990, while France joins in at a somewhat slower pace than some other countries
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17 Oct Resource Efficiency – Facts and Trends Towards 2050.

Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering (IVA)
2015
A report from IVA project Resource Efficient Business Models – Greater Competitiveness, 2015 36 pp.
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17 Oct Biogas (Report only in French)

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
EDP Sciences 2016 Biogas, resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, is known since the late 18th century: swamp gas. In Europe, the production of biogas on an industrial scale takes off somewhere between 1980 and 1990. The report describes sources and processes for the generation of biogas: hermetically sealed waste dumps and the capture of biogas from anaerobic digestion; industrial anaerobic fermentation of household waste with different species of bacteria at different temperatures; fermentation of agricultural crop waste and animal droppings; processing of biodegradable sludge from waste water treatment plants; etc. Biogas plants using a second generation methanisation process at high temperatures have been built in Germany and Sweden. Biogas is regarded as a renewable energy but is not fit for industrial use in untreated form as it contains various contaminants that need to be filtered. The success of biogas as a substitute for natural gas depends on the financial incentives granted.
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17 Oct Energy Vectors (English version)

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2012
Editions Le Manuscrit 2012 Energy procurement/uses, influenced by oil prices and climate change, may differ in different countries. These influences continue but time-scales change (e.g. for peak oil and gas). The Fukushima accident has shaken confidence into nuclear power. This Report proposes a robust methodology for making relevant economic and ecological choices related to energy transition. Focussing on the French situation, it deals with Energy Vectors: the support system delivering energy ready to use (electricity, petrol, gas, or heat, etc.) to consumers; the intermediary stage of vectors between sources (coal, gas, U, wind, hydro) and demand of final energy (for transport, heating, industrial processes, etc.). While end-consumers may not be aware of the source for the final energy, distinguishing between them would allow economic and ecological competition (when C02 emissions carry a price-tag). This report throws new light on the political decisions that must be taken and provides guidelines with a long-range relevance.
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17 Oct Impact of ICT on world energy consumption – and carbon footprints (Report only in French)

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2015
EDP Sciences, 2015 The report analyses the impact of ICT’s worldwide energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions, considering the impacts generated by the operation of its various hardware and infrastructure, and the savings it spawns in other areas of activity. Conclusion: The final energy and carbon balance of all ICT categories together is clearly a positive one. In 2012, ICT accounted for 4.7% of worldwide electricity consumption, and a total carbon footprint of about 1.7 percent. These numbers are on an upwards trend, but in smaller proportions than the growing use of ICT, thanks to its contribution to reduce these footprints in other areas of activities such as in the transport sector, buildings, manufacturing industries, or even dematerialised procedures. The report focuses on the (global) transport/mobility sector benefitting from digitisation in and around vehicles and lists current lines of research aimed at better performance of computing, with lower energy consumption.
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