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National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) 2009The dream of creating an artificial Intelligence (AI) is as old as the computer, if not as old as humanity (think of Golem). Since the fifties, theorists like Alan Turin have expressed their belief that machines could match men in performing complex tasks in an intelligent way. Despite the continuous advances of computers can we really say that they have intelligence? If so, how does it relay to human intelligence? The document defines AI and answers many such questions as: what characteristics of human intelligence can be modelled, what are the concepts and tools for AI, what are the industrial successes of AI techniques, how far can and will AI go and what further efforts are needed for future developments of AI?