18 Oct Security of the Energy Supply
Posted at 07:45h in - Classification of themes - All, - Member Academies - All, Energy and Climate Change, Hungarian Academy of Engineering (HAE) 0 Comments
Hungarian Academy of Engineering (HAE) 2010
Hungarian Academy of Engineering (HAE) 2010
National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) 2011The NATF supports the EU efforts to inverse the present climate trends and to prepare EU countries for the future world that will be inevitably much less- or even carbon-free. It recommends, however, proceeding cautiously in order not to displace the emissions out of the Union and to unwillingly contribute to their global, world increase. This short memo analyses the impact of proposed EU measures on European competitivity and produces recommendations on how to reinforce economic activities in the countries of the Union. (85 words)
National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) 2011In this book, edited on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the NATF, 25 Fellows express their personal viewpoints on a variety of subjects. The 4 main themes are: Human Life “Homo Sapiens”, Man in his Environment, Innovation in its Context, Prospective and Ethical Issues.
National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) 2011This extensive study is the follow-up of the NATF October 2008 report “Prospective for the Energy in the 21st Century”. A vector of energy is a system of the primary energy distribution to the final consumer. A vector of energy stage is intercalated between primary sources (carbon, oil, natural gas, uranium, hydraulic, wind, solar, biomass, geothermal) and the stage of consumer needs (transportation, heating, air conditioning and multiples electricity uses…). The report does not propose the scenarios but is a sort of a guide for the most efficient use of various energy sources for a given application, from the economic and ecological point of view. Numerical application of the method allows taking into account and simulating present and future evolutions of various sources of energy costs and of the price attributed to CO2 emitted. An analysis of sensibility of these parameters is also included.
Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW) 2011Theoretically, renewable energies in Switzerland have sufficient potential to cover national demand. As yet, however, they play only a subordinate role. There is a need for research and development to lower costs. Wind and solar energy have the disadvantage that they are not continuously available. This situation needs to be remedied through technical conversion and storage processes such as pumped-storage power plants or new types of battery. The development and above all expansion of the use of renewable energies are not just technical and economic matters but also require the cooperation of society. Without the active involvement of the population the way towards total supply becomes inaccessible, since it is the people as voters, consumers and investors who directly determine the energy future. To assist them in their decision-making they should have access to reliable and comprehensible information highlighting the possibilities of renewable energies but also the challenges that they present.
Belgium Academies (ARB) 2011Biomass seemed a very promising resource for substituting fossil hydrocarbons as a renewable source of energy and as a sustainable raw material for various industrial sectors. However, during the first decade of the 21st century, competition between the use of biomass for food and feed on the one hand, and for energy and industrial applications on the other hand, became a big issue. Dramatic food price rises in the first half of 2008 were blamed to the use of arable land for the production of first generation biofuels at the expense of food and feed. On purpose, the present report of the BACAS working group does not focus on the food and feed issue, but examines thoroughly the implications and limitations of the use of non- food (industrial ) biomass as a source of chemicals, materials and energy. For its analysis, the BACAS report started from the widely accepted “5 F-cascade”, a list of priorities regarding the use of biomass: 1. Food and feed 2. Fine and bulk chemicals and pharma 3. Fibre and biomaterials 4. Fuels and energy 5. Fertilisers and soil conditioners The authors have covered the impact of an increasing use of industrial (or technical) biomass as a renewable resource for various industrial sectors and for power generation. The use of biomass as a renewable primary energy source will be of key importance for achieving the 20/20/20 targets of the European Union, i.e. use of at least 20% of renewables for energy production, 20% less greenhouse gas emissions and 20% more efficient energy use by the year 2020: biomass is expected to provide 2/3 of the renewable energy target by 2020. The report starts with an overview of state-of-the-art processes and technologies for converting industrial biomass. Next, it focuses on the 5 F-cascade of applications of biomass and on the legislation affecting the bio-based economy. Finally a number of recommendations are formulated meant for government, industry, research and development agencies. The EU’s common agricultural policy (CAP) should develop an integrated policy for the bio-based economy, including the removal of still existing trade barriers, a scientifically substantiated policy with regard to genetically modified crops and sustainability criteria. The public and private scientific communities are urged to set up public-private partnerships in order to support coordinated research programs, in particular with regard to feedstock yields and biomass optimization in view of maximizing the efficiency of processes converting biomass into energy or industrial products.
Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE) 2011This report follows on from the earlier joint report by the Academy and Engineers Ireland on “Infrastructure for an island population of 8 million people” published in February 2010. The report is framed within the context of the current serious economic and social environment on the island of Ireland. Two serious problems confront Ireland and Northern Ireland concerning investment infrastructure: - Lack of available capital - Requirement for sustained investment in critical infrastructure to permit essential economic growth and the maintenance of international competitiveness The report recognises that the current reduction in construction prices presents an opportunity to secure significant reductions in the non-construction costs of projects. By streamlining processes and procedures for land acquisition, planning, public procurement, institutional arrangements, training, skills, funding and financing mechanisms and through synergies between projects in Ireland and Northern Ireland, major cost reductions can be achieved.
Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE) 2011The unprecedented economic crisis in Ireland has created circumstances that require a rapid and fundamental change in energy policy in order to support economic recovery. A short term (five year) policy perspective is urgently required. For the next five years the overriding priority in the energy sector is to achieve a significant cost reduction in order to facilitate competitiveness in the productive, particularly the export, sectors of the economy. The report sets out an alternative strategy for the next five years, based on: - Reducing capital investment in the energy sector to a minimum necessary level, particularly with respect to wind power generation and associated grid extensions. - Switching investment to demand side measures, particularly to energy conservation measures. - Taking advantage of the subdued level of natural gas prices predicted for the next five to ten years. A switch, from a policy focussed on increased electricity production, to one focussed on reducing energy consumption would:- - Meet Ireland’s carbon abatement obligations at a lower cost than current production focussed policy - Provide a significant and welcome stimulus to the Irish construction industry
Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng) 2011This study was an activity of the Engineering the Future partnership, carried out on behalf of Defra by The Royal Academy of Engineering, the Institution of Engineering and Technology, the Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Institution of Chemical Engineers. The report examines vulnerabilities in different sectors of the national infrastructure to the effects of climate change and the modifications that would be needed to increase resilience. It also considers vulnerabilities that affect the infrastructure system as a whole and which arise as a result of Interdependencies between different sectors.
Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng) 2011To learn more about the opportunities and challenges for the UK’s offshore wind supply chain, The Royal Academy of Engineering gathered together leaders from across the industry – developers, suppliers, financiers, policymakers, port owners and education providers – at a roundtable discussion on 11 March 2011. This document summarises the conclusions from that roundtable – making recommendations in four key areas: Infrastructure, Skills, Investment and Health and Safety. In particular, the report recommends that the Government does the following: 1. Support UK businesses that have already secured opportunities within the sector; 2. Engage with businesses planning to enter the market and help them to understand the industry; 3. Explore opportunities for UK companies unaware of the sector, matching gaps in the supply chain to the capabilities of businesses.