– Classification of publications – All

17 Oct Resource Efficiency – Facts and Trends Towards 2050.

Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering (IVA)
2015
A report from IVA project Resource Efficient Business Models – Greater Competitiveness, 2015 36 pp.
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17 Oct IAS statement on development of Energy system in Slovenia until 2030 with a view until 2050 (34 pages)

Engineering Academy of Slovenia (IAS)
2015
IAS has published Statement of the development of energetics in Slovenia that are a result of cooperation between members of IAS as well as other experts, non-members of the Academy. The statement refers to new technologies, climate change, dependence of EU on import of energy, reliability of supply, price fluctuations on global markets and gives advice on these issues.
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17 Oct Biogas (Report only in French)

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
EDP Sciences 2016 Biogas, resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, is known since the late 18th century: swamp gas. In Europe, the production of biogas on an industrial scale takes off somewhere between 1980 and 1990. The report describes sources and processes for the generation of biogas: hermetically sealed waste dumps and the capture of biogas from anaerobic digestion; industrial anaerobic fermentation of household waste with different species of bacteria at different temperatures; fermentation of agricultural crop waste and animal droppings; processing of biodegradable sludge from waste water treatment plants; etc. Biogas plants using a second generation methanisation process at high temperatures have been built in Germany and Sweden. Biogas is regarded as a renewable energy but is not fit for industrial use in untreated form as it contains various contaminants that need to be filtered. The success of biogas as a substitute for natural gas depends on the financial incentives granted.
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17 Oct Energy Vectors (English version)

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2012
Editions Le Manuscrit 2012 Energy procurement/uses, influenced by oil prices and climate change, may differ in different countries. These influences continue but time-scales change (e.g. for peak oil and gas). The Fukushima accident has shaken confidence into nuclear power. This Report proposes a robust methodology for making relevant economic and ecological choices related to energy transition. Focussing on the French situation, it deals with Energy Vectors: the support system delivering energy ready to use (electricity, petrol, gas, or heat, etc.) to consumers; the intermediary stage of vectors between sources (coal, gas, U, wind, hydro) and demand of final energy (for transport, heating, industrial processes, etc.). While end-consumers may not be aware of the source for the final energy, distinguishing between them would allow economic and ecological competition (when C02 emissions carry a price-tag). This report throws new light on the political decisions that must be taken and provides guidelines with a long-range relevance.
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17 Oct NATURAL GAS Essential for Ireland’s Future Energy Security

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2018
Natural gas plays a critical role in Ireland’s energy mix and economy. Gas provides around 30% of Ireland’s total primary energy and generates about 50% of Ireland’s electricity. Many industries and homes in Ireland depend on gas for heating. Ireland’s Government has a vision of transitioning to a low-carbon economy by 2050. This will require a large increase in renewables and a shift to lower-carbon fuels like natural gas. Natural gas has the lowest carbon emissions of all fossil fuels and is an ideal complement to renewables. Natural gas will be critical for Ireland’s transition to a low-carbon future. Ireland needs to develop alternative sources of gas supply and supply routes. Developing a Liquefied Natural Gas import terminal in Ireland would enhance Ireland’s security of gas supply and provide access to the increasingly competitive global LNG market. Exploration for gas offshore Ireland should also be promoted, with appropriate licensing terms. A strategic national plan is required to diversify Ireland’s gas supply needs.
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17 Oct Impact of ICT on world energy consumption – and carbon footprints (Report only in French)

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2015
EDP Sciences, 2015 The report analyses the impact of ICT’s worldwide energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions, considering the impacts generated by the operation of its various hardware and infrastructure, and the savings it spawns in other areas of activity. Conclusion: The final energy and carbon balance of all ICT categories together is clearly a positive one. In 2012, ICT accounted for 4.7% of worldwide electricity consumption, and a total carbon footprint of about 1.7 percent. These numbers are on an upwards trend, but in smaller proportions than the growing use of ICT, thanks to its contribution to reduce these footprints in other areas of activities such as in the transport sector, buildings, manufacturing industries, or even dematerialised procedures. The report focuses on the (global) transport/mobility sector benefitting from digitisation in and around vehicles and lists current lines of research aimed at better performance of computing, with lower energy consumption.
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08 Juil Methane – where does it come from, what is its impact on the climate? (Report only in French)

National Academy of Technologies of France
(NATF) 2014
EDP Sciences 2014 Strong variations of atmospheric concentrations of the potent greenhouse gas methane have accompanied glacial and interglacial periods - influencing timetable and magnitude of past and present climate changes. The report describes and analyses natural and human-related sources and sinks of atmospheric methane with particular attention to potentially massive emissions from thawing permafrost and clathrates. The methane fluxes between main reservoirs and the atmosphere is measured via ground-based networks or from outer space. As atmospheric methane is destroyed over time (half-life ~7 years), its GHG-efficiency is not straight-forward. While fossil fuel exploitation is an important methane source, emissions could be limited at reasonable cost. Feedbacks from wetlands and soils are more difficult to control. Recommendations are made in areas such as agricultural practices, waste- and landfill management, biomass combustion, exploitation of coal, natural gas and oil. The potential exploitation of methane from permafrost and marine clathrates should be closely followed.
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