– Classification of publications – All

18 Oct Synthetic biology – A new engineering science emerges

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
2011
Synthetic biology is the attempt to create cells with specific properties. It is about to establish itself as a new engineering science. This brochure wishes to help to expound the opportunities and risks presented by this scientific area about which very little is known by the general public as yet. The discipline is in its infancy, and the results that have been achieved to date seem rather to be an extension of previous work in genetic engineering. However, scientists have already succeeded in synthesizing a whole genome of a bacterium and introducing this into a foreign bacterial cell envelope. The “new” bacterium exhibits the properties of the introduced genes. Researchers are concentrating their efforts on the development of minimal cells. These contain only the essential genes needed for cell growth and are intended to serve as a chassis for other newly developed genes and functions. The brochure opens with a philosophical contemplation which provides a counterpoint to the scientific viewpoint by questioning the extent to which that which is living can be described, and thus engineered. In the other contributions, important concepts in synthetic biology are discussed and concepts introduced by which the complexity of biological systems can be reduced. This is an important prerequisite for their commercial exploitation.
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18 Oct Ratification of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine by the Polish Parliament

Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN)
2012
Letter of the President of PAS and the Chairman of the Committee on Biology of Reproduction of PAS to the Speaker of the Polish Parliament with regard to a legislative initiative on ratifying the Convention signed by the Republic of Poland.
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18 Oct Position paper 1/2012 of the Committee on Bioethics PAS of 15 March 2012

Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN)
2012
On ethical problems of reproductive medicine and clinical genetics requiring legal regulation (including in vitro fertilisation and the need of implementation of the Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on setting standards of quality and safety for the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells, Implementing Directives, Commission Directive 2006/17/EC of 8 February 2006 and Commission Directive 2006/86/EC as far as human embryos and gametes are concerned).
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18 Oct Position paper of the Committee on Bioethics PAS of 8 June 2012 on the admissibility of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in Poland)

Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN)
2012
On the directions in legal regulations concerning the application of in vitro fertilisation and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis technologies. The position paper indicates medical and ethical aspects as well as legal regulations in force in Poland and in other countries of European Union.
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18 Oct Perspectives on Biotechnology Communication. Controversies – Contexts – Formats2

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2012
Biotechnology, and genetic engineering in particular, have been a point of focus for public debate in Germany for almost 40 years. However, controversy in social and academic settings centres around specific application rather than on the theory of biotechnology itself. Conceptualizing this public controversy as a lack of acceptance that can be overcome by providing greater information misses the point. Controversy is by nature important, and should not be swept under the carpet by communications. When it comes to new technologies, dialogue between scientists and the public at large is vital.
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18 Oct Manufacturing and its Prospects

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2015
John Mc Gowan, President (IAE)- 2015 Paper presented at the Dublin Economics Workshop 2015. Concentrated on future prospects for pharma and biotech industries and support environment required.
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18 Oct Biotechnology for all

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
2015
Biotechnological research is no longer limited to specialist laboratories: a growing community of biologists, amateur enthusiasts and technophiles is experimenting in kitchens, workshops and DIY laboratories. Some people view the democratisation of biotechnology as a threat, others as an opportunity to gain a better understanding of complex scientific interrelationships within society. A few years ago, something which occurred in software development in the early 1990s also began to emerge in the field of biotechnology: “open source” and “do-it-yourself” (“DIY”) strategies are opening up a field of knowledge traditionally occupied by experts, universities and large companies to a broader community. In 2008, a handful of technology enthusiasts in Boston set out to drag biotechnological research out of established institutions into garages and kitchens in urban and rural settings. Since then, Europe, the USA and Asia have seen the emergence of dozens of garage laboratories with scales, mixers, refrigerators and incubators, all purchased cheaply from eBay. Some laboratories are also equipped with homemade bioanalytical devices. Inquisitive laymen and experienced researchers conduct experiments shoulder to shoulder, pursuing personal biotech research projects or simply indulging in the satisfaction of DIY.
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18 Oct White biotechnology and synthetic biology

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2012
Biotechnology is the application of S&T to living organisms. White biotechnology (Bio-Based Industries - BBl) uses renewable carbon sources  in fermentation processes to produce food compounds, fuels, specialties and chemical commodities, and plastics.  Synthetic biology (SB) introduces engineering principles into biotechnology, promoting the emergence of a true bio-economy.  Although endowed with a well-developed agriculture and BBI-related research, there are only about a dozen companies engaged in applications of SB to BBl in France, including start-ups, intermediate enterprises, and Total, resulting in few industrial realisations. The sector is considered risky by investors.  A consistent effort to train  engineers and PhD-students in these areas is essential.  Regarding risks, traditional BBI-products must be distinguished from SB-products in specific sectors. Upstream from industrial SB-applications on a large scale, research on the security, safety, ethics, toxicology and ecotoxicology is vital.  The academic SB community self-regulates its conduct in an effort of openness, transparency, anticipation and prevention of potential risks. Working-group leader: Pierre Monsan, director “Toulouse White Biotechnology” and NATF Fellow.
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18 Oct Position Paper on Slovenian Energy Policy

Engineering Academy of Slovenia (IAS)
2009
Slovenia needs an effective energy policy, as reliable energy supply, effective and endurable consumption and environment protection are crucial elements of quality economic development of Slovenia. Reduction of energy dependence and successful energy strategy can be provided by efficient usage of energy and a high share of local classical and renewable sources.
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