– Classification of publications – All

18 Oct Biofuels

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2010
At the beginning of the 21st century, France has decided to develop its industrial channels related to the production of 1st generation of biofuels, from agricultural fields to transformation plants. These channels include cereal and beet cultures and storage for the production of ethanol as well as colza and sunflowers for the production of vegetal oils. Ethanol and vegetal oils can replace respectively gasoline and diesel after their chemical transformation. Thermochemical processes related to such transformations and their economics are discussed. The report describes also the potential use of agricultural wastes and forestry, which would not compete with the above mentioned agricultural products intended for food. These 2nd generation biofuels are under development and should be operational and in use after 2020.
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18 Oct CO2 capture and storage: inevitable for a climate friendly Belgium

Belgium Academies (ARB)
2010
In industrial installations, but also for power production, it will be difficult or impossible to avoid the use of fossil fuels in the short to medium future. It is exactly for these applications that CCS can be applied to drastically reduce the emission of CO2. The industry in Belgium is CO2 intensive and CO2 capture appears therefore as an inevitable option to meet environmental goals without jeopardizing general well-fare. All capture activities are to be balanced by geological storage, and the potential for that is uncertain in Belgium. Transport of CO2, by pipeline or ship, is however relatively cheap and efficient, even over distances of several hundreds of kilometers. It is therefore reassuring that the European storage potential is sufficiently large for large scale CCS activities throughout the EU. Nevertheless, it is highly recommendable to start exploration for domestic storage reservoirs. CO2 capture and storage is a climate friendly measure that does not need sustained financial support to be viable. After a relatively short commercialization phase the Emission Trading System (ETS) price of CO2 will by itself be a sufficient economic stimulus. Nevertheless, early support is crucial for fast and large-scale application of CCS. Therefore, this report includes recommendations that should lead to a clear energy policy that includes CCS and public funding for a correctly balanced public-private investment scheme for essential developments that will contribute to the common good. CCS is not a perfect solution. The option of CCS would not be on the table, were it not essential and inevitable. This is true for the world as a whole, but also for Belgium and its regions Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels-Capital.
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18 Oct Generating the Future: UK energy systems fit for 2050

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2010
This report, produced by a working group of Fellows of The Royal Academy of Engineering, considers possible energy scenarios that could meet the 2050 emissions reduction target. Four scenarios are explored. They describe the whole energy system in broad brush strokes and are illustrative rather than prescriptive, identifying the principal components of the system and contributing towards a better systems level understanding of the most salient issues.  The report concludes that turning the theoretical emissions reduction targets into reality will require the biggest peacetime programme of change ever seen in the UK.  While the market will be the vehicle for technological and business solutions, the combined challenges of climate change, security of supply and affordability call for a more directed approach from government.
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18 Oct Nuclear Lessons Learned

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2010
This report constitutes the first phase of a larger project that will investigate the lessons to be learned from recent and current nuclear build projects that are relevant to new power station projects in the UK. In this context, the current report represents the academic summary of literature and information available to date.  This review identifies the following lessons: 1. Follow-on replica stations are cheaper than first-of-a-kind. 2. The design must be mature and licensing issues resolved prior to start of construction. 3. Establish a highly-qualified team to develop the design, secure the safety case, plan the procurement and build schedule in detail in collaboration with main contractors. 4. Ensure that sub-contractors are of high quality and experienced in nuclear construction or are taught the necessary special skills and requirements for quality, traceability and documentation. 5. Establish and maintain good communications with the community local to the site.
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18 Oct Directive: quotas for the period 2013-2020 of the European Community

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2011
The NATF supports the EU efforts to inverse the present climate trends and to prepare EU countries for the future world that will be inevitably much less- or even carbon-free. It recommends, however, proceeding cautiously in order not to displace the emissions out of the Union and to unwillingly contribute to their global, world increase. This short memo analyses the impact of proposed EU measures on European competitivity and produces recommendations on how to reinforce economic activities in the countries of the Union. (85 words)
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18 Oct Vectors of Energy

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2011
This extensive study is the follow-up of the NATF October 2008 report “Prospective for the Energy in the 21st Century”. A vector of energy is a system of the primary energy distribution to the final consumer. A vector of energy stage is intercalated between primary sources (carbon, oil, natural gas, uranium, hydraulic, wind, solar, biomass, geothermal) and the stage of consumer needs (transportation, heating, air conditioning and multiples electricity uses…). The report does not propose the scenarios but is a sort of a guide for the most efficient use of various energy sources for a given application, from the economic and ecological point of view. Numerical application of the method allows taking into account and simulating present and future evolutions of various sources of energy costs and of the price attributed to CO2 emitted. An analysis of sensibility of these parameters is also included.
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18 Oct Renewable energies – Challenges along the way towards total supply

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
2011
Theoretically, renewable energies in Switzerland have sufficient potential to cover national demand. As yet, however, they play only a subordinate role. There is a need for research and development to lower costs. Wind and solar energy have the disadvantage that they are not continuously available. This situation needs to be remedied through technical conversion and storage processes such as pumped-storage power plants or new types of battery. The development and above all expansion of the use of renewable energies are not just technical and economic matters but also require the cooperation of society. Without the active involvement of the population the way towards total supply becomes inaccessible, since it is the people as voters, consumers and investors who directly determine the energy future. To assist them in their decision-making they should have access to reliable and comprehensible information highlighting the possibilities of renewable energies but also the challenges that they present.
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18 Oct Industrial Biomass: Source of Chemicals, Materials, and Energy!

Belgium Academies (ARB)
2011
Biomass seemed a very promising resource for substituting fossil hydrocarbons as a renewable source of energy and as a sustainable raw material for various industrial sectors. However, during the first decade of the 21st century, competition between the use of biomass for food and feed on the one hand, and for energy and industrial applications on the other hand, became a big issue. Dramatic food price rises in the first half of 2008 were blamed to the use of arable land for the production of first generation biofuels at the expense of food and feed. On purpose, the present report of the BACAS working group does not focus on the food and feed issue, but examines thoroughly the implications and limitations of the use of non- food (industrial ) biomass as a source of chemicals, materials and energy. For its analysis, the BACAS report started from the widely accepted “5 F-cascade”, a list of priorities regarding the use of biomass: 1.    Food and feed 2.    Fine and bulk chemicals and pharma 3.    Fibre and biomaterials 4.    Fuels and energy 5.    Fertilisers and soil conditioners The authors have covered the impact of an increasing use of industrial (or technical) biomass as a renewable resource for various industrial sectors and for power generation. The use of biomass as a renewable primary energy source will be of key importance for achieving the 20/20/20 targets of the European Union, i.e. use of at least 20% of renewables for energy production, 20% less greenhouse gas emissions and 20% more efficient energy use by the year 2020: biomass is expected to provide 2/3 of the renewable energy target by 2020. The report starts with an overview of state-of-the-art processes and technologies for converting industrial biomass. Next, it focuses on the 5 F-cascade of applications of biomass and on the legislation affecting the bio-based economy. Finally a number of recommendations are formulated meant for government, industry, research and development agencies. The EU’s common agricultural policy (CAP) should develop an integrated policy for the bio-based economy, including the removal of still existing trade barriers, a scientifically substantiated policy with regard to genetically modified crops and sustainability criteria. The public and private scientific communities are urged to set up public-private partnerships in order to support coordinated research programs, in particular with regard to feedstock yields and biomass optimization in view of maximizing the efficiency of processes converting biomass into energy or industrial products.
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18 Oct The Cost Effective Delivery of Essential Infrastructure

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2011
This report follows on from the earlier joint report by the Academy and Engineers Ireland on “Infrastructure for an island population of 8 million people” published in February 2010.  The report is framed within the context of the current serious economic and social environment on the island of Ireland. Two serious problems confront Ireland and Northern Ireland concerning investment infrastructure: - Lack of available capital - Requirement for sustained investment in critical infrastructure to permit essential economic growth and the maintenance of international competitiveness The report recognises that the current reduction in construction prices presents an opportunity to secure significant reductions in the non-construction costs of projects.  By streamlining processes and procedures for land acquisition, planning, public procurement, institutional arrangements, training, skills, funding and financing mechanisms and through synergies between projects in Ireland and Northern Ireland, major cost reductions can be achieved.
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18 Oct Energy Policy and Economic Recovery; 2010 – 2015

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2011
The unprecedented economic crisis in Ireland has created circumstances that require a rapid and fundamental change in energy policy in order to support economic recovery.  A short term (five year) policy perspective is urgently required.  For the next five years the overriding priority in the energy sector is to achieve a significant cost reduction in order to facilitate competitiveness in the productive, particularly the export, sectors of the economy. The report sets out an alternative strategy for the next five years, based on: - Reducing capital investment in the energy sector to a minimum necessary level, particularly with respect to wind power generation and associated grid extensions. - Switching investment to demand side measures, particularly to energy conservation measures. - Taking advantage of the subdued level of natural gas prices predicted for the next five to ten years. A switch, from a policy focussed on increased electricity production, to one focussed on reducing energy consumption would:- - Meet Ireland’s carbon abatement obligations at a lower cost than current production focussed policy - Provide a significant and welcome stimulus to the Irish construction industry
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