– Classification of publications – All

08 Juil Methane – where does it come from, what is its impact on the climate? (Report only in French)

National Academy of Technologies of France
(NATF) 2014
EDP Sciences 2014 Strong variations of atmospheric concentrations of the potent greenhouse gas methane have accompanied glacial and interglacial periods - influencing timetable and magnitude of past and present climate changes. The report describes and analyses natural and human-related sources and sinks of atmospheric methane with particular attention to potentially massive emissions from thawing permafrost and clathrates. The methane fluxes between main reservoirs and the atmosphere is measured via ground-based networks or from outer space. As atmospheric methane is destroyed over time (half-life ~7 years), its GHG-efficiency is not straight-forward. While fossil fuel exploitation is an important methane source, emissions could be limited at reasonable cost. Feedbacks from wetlands and soils are more difficult to control. Recommendations are made in areas such as agricultural practices, waste- and landfill management, biomass combustion, exploitation of coal, natural gas and oil. The potential exploitation of methane from permafrost and marine clathrates should be closely followed.
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08 Juil Belgian Research in the European Context

Belgium Academies (ARB) 
2009
This report on the state of Belgian research in the European context is the result of an initiative of BACAS, the Belgian Royal Academy Council for Applied Science. It is aimed at providing elements of reflection in the area of science and research policy for the 2010 Belgian Presidency of the European Union. The report is based on both a quantitative assessment of Belgian research from international statistics and a qualitative evaluation obtained from responses to a questionnaire sent to individuals and organisations, public and private, involved in the planning, management and/or execution of research in Belgium. As shown by various performance indicators, the Belgian R&D system occupies an honourable place in the European context, in terms of expenditures per unit GDP, number of researchers and doctoral graduates per 1000 employees, scientific publications, number of applications for patents and overall innovation performance, as well as participation in European programmes. On the negative side is the slowdown in growth of research funding, even before the current economic crisis. The Lisbon/Barcelona target of 3% of GNP for 2010 will be missed by a wide margin, as it was only 1.83% in 2006. The main strengths of the R&D system, as seen through the replies to the questionnaire, are considered to be, first, the internationally recognised high quality of university education and research, and of other public and private research, second, the various initiatives at federal and regional levels to support fundamental and applied research, third, the fiscal measures to stimulate employment of researchers. Weaknesses are the under-funding of public research and higher education, the “atomisation” resulting from the complexity of structures and decision making at the various political levels, the dearth of permanent research positions, the insufficient mobility of researchers, the fact that much of private research is done in foreign-owned companies, the unsatisfactory state of large scientific infrastructures. The assessment leads to recommendations concerning public and private research funding, improved coordination between the different levels of government, increasing the attractiveness of research careers, as well as reducing the administrative load in the EU programmes and the reinforcement of the European Research Area.
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08 Juil Manifesto The de-industrialization of Europe There’s no more time to lose!

Belgium Academies (ARB) 
2010
This report was compiled by a group of members of the “Technology & Society” section of the “Académie royale de Belgique” to express their alarm at the decline of industrial activity in numerous European countries as well as the social consequences of it. The de-industrialization of Europe is not impacting all countries to the same extent. The loss of traditional industries is sometimes partially offset by the creation of new industries through this too varies from one country to country and indeed from one region to another. Overall in Europe, however, the reality of the phenomenon is undeniable. In order to curb the de-industrialization of Europe, the report lists several recommendations to be urgently considered and implemented.
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08 Mai Technology Outlook 2019

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
May 2019
Authors: Claudia Schärer et al. Main themes: early identification, technology Nature of publication: study One of the SATW’s key missions is the early identification of new, possibly disruptive technologies that will become relevant for Switzerland’s economy and society in the next three to five years. Every two years, the SATW therefore publishes a public early identification report that presents these technologies and assesses their significance. The Technology Outlook’s third edition introduces several new features. The net was cast significantly wider and more precisely: the current report presents 37 technologies drawn from the fields most relevant to the Swiss economy. This list of technologies was compiled in close cooperation with the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) as well as more than 70 experts. The selection takes into account the technologies’ relevance for Switzerland and their technological maturity. Some technologies have therefore not found their way into the report, as they either do not fit the targeted time horizon of three to five years or are only of little relevance for the Swiss economy.
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01 Jan Digitalisation for increased competitiveness

Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering (IVA)
2019
Digitalisation as a phenomenon is creating a profound change in society both in Sweden and globally. IVA believes that a broad and insightful discussion is needed on the changes that digitalisation enables, as Sweden's future prosperity will depend on society's ability to take advantage of the power in development and renewal that digitalisation bring. IVA's project Digitalisation for increased competitiveness wants to contribute to such a discussion. The following areas are in focus: digital infrastructure, security, skills, privacy and the initiatives and forms of collaboration that are needed to strengthen the international competitiveness of Sweden as a nation as well as Swedish industry. IVA concludes, among other things, that privacy needs to be discussed in a more nuanced and structured way depending on who is using the personal data and for what, and that the responsibility for digital infrastructure today is following a layered model with complex interactions between different actors. In addition, IVA considers that the responsibility for digitalisation issues at central-political level needs to be reorganised. The establishment of a coordination office within the Government Office is proposed. The coordination office should have financial resources and a mandate to pursue governance and coordination issues. The report is available in Swedish.
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01 Jan Sustainable new start for Sweden

Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering (IVA)
2019
The corona crisis has had a serious impact on Sweden. The pandemic has forced a shift in political and economic focus to support the most vulnerable. To deal with the immediate effects of the crisis, major public financial investments have therefore been made, both in Sweden and in the rest of Europe. At the same time, the need to transition to a competitive and climate-neutral society remain. The challenge is to maintain the long-term investments needed for Sweden and Europe to achieve the climate targets set, while at the same time making efforts to bring Sweden and Europe out of the pandemic. IVA's Sustainable New Start for Sweden project aims to point out important measures to get the Swedish economy moving again - without losing focus on long-term sustainability goals. Here, IVA's nine recommended actions are presented. The recommendations are based on analyses and suggestions from other IVA projects. Among other things, IVA calls for active cooperation within the EU, for the shortcomings in Sweden's electricity supply to be addressed, for the electrification of transport and industry to be accelerated and for public research investments to increase. The report is available in Swedish.
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08 Sep Information sharing practices in the field of cybersecurity

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
September 2018
Authors: Solange Ghernaouti, Laura Crespo, Bastien Wanner Main themes: cybersecurity Nature of publication: report The publication analyses information sharing practices in the field of cybersecurity. It summarises the context, needs and constraints of information sharing to ensure security, resilience, and the fight against cybercrime.
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08 Août Swiss industry’s innovative capacity 1997–2014: reassessed

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
August 2018
Authors: Hans-Peter Herzig, Rita Hofmann, Claudia Schärer, Peter Seitz Main themes: innovation Nature of publication: study Switzerland regularly comes top of rankings evaluating countries’ innovative capacity. Despite this positive assessment, an increasing number of voices are noting an alarming decline in the innovative capacity of Swiss industry. Where does the truth lie?  
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08 Avr Renewable energy production is head of the pack

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
April 2018
Authors: Bjarne Steffen, Dominique Hischier, Tobias S. Schmidt Main themes: energy Nature of publication: study Specialists of the Energy Politics Group at ETH Zurich were commissioned by SATW to analyse - for the first time ever - the total energy balance of key forms of power production in Switzerland using standardised methodology. The study examined natural gas, geothermal energy, nuclear power, photovoltaics, coal, hydro power, and wind power and firstly calculated their non-renewable cumulative energy demand required to build and supply a system and for power production. For fossil fuel production processes and nuclear power, this is first and foremost the energy in the relevant fuel (gas, coal, uranium). The second element determined was the energy return on energy investment (EROI), which describes the relationship between the power produced and the (‘grey’) energy invested across a system’s entire life cycle. These key figures were used to assess total energy balance. Hydro power’s total energy balance is outstanding. What is impressive is how much it outstrips other forms of power production in terms of its energy return on energy investment.
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08 Août Critical metals: How Swiss industry can look ahead

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
August 2017
Authors: Alessandra Hool, Hans-Jörg Althaus, Christian Hagelüken, Ernst Lutz, Armin Reller, Patrick Wäger, Bruno Walser, Margarethe Hofmann Main themes: resources, metals Nature of publication: workshop results The term “critical raw materials” refers to raw materials (and in particularly metals) defined by the European Union as being urgently needed for this business location in the future but presenting, due to their unsecure supply, risks for the European economy – this affects Rare Earth Elements as well as other elements such as indium, cobalt, tungsten and many more. Participants from research, industry, medium-sized companies, associations, and politics came together in a workshop to discuss ways in which Switzerland could respond to the threat of supply bottlenecks for critical raw materials. They identified obstacles preventing the topic from being suitably prioritised by companies, attributed involved key stakeholders, and discussed ways of establishing greater transparency in the field of critical raw materials. The greatest challenge was identified as being not a lack of data, but rather an unclear and dispersed flow of information, few opportunities for companies to individually gather information, and a lack of knowledge on strategies for handling raw materials limitations. The greatest challenge facing Switzerland and Europe is to increase awareness of the issues surrounding secure supply of raw materials. The short brochure offers an overview of the topic, focusing on Switzerland in particular, and provides recommendations.
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