– Classification of publications – All

17 Oct The EU Power Industry

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2015
Kieran O’Brien (IAE) - 2015 Paper presented at the Dublin Economics Workshop 2015. Reviewed current physical and financial hazards facing European utility companies and adverse consequences of EU and national energy policies.
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17 Oct Annual Report 2014

Real Academia de Ingenieria (Spain) (RAI)
2015
 
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17 Oct Hydraulic Fracturing. A technology under debate

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2016
Hydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as fracking, is controversially debated among politicians and the public. Already employed in Germany for over 50 years, the technology is currently discussed with regard to two applications significant in terms of economic and energy policy: The extraction of shale gas from shale formations and the production of heat and energy from geothermal sources. Addressing the various facets of fracking, the POSITION paper provides a comprehensive scientific and technical overview of the method and its risks and benefits. The study resorts to best practice examples to illustrate how pilot/test projects can be used to continue exploring and implementing the technology while ensuring the highest possible safety standards . acatech thus contributes to broadening the available information base for decision-makers from politics as well as interested members of the public.
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17 Oct Consulting with energy scenarios. Requirements for scientific policy advice

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2016
However, as calculation models are part of the implementing institutions’ operating capital, they are frequently not disclosed. Also, it is not always clear whether the results are influenced by any provisions by the commissioning institutions. The position paper by the Academies’ Project "Energy Systems of the Future" (ESYS) offers suggestions how transparency can be increased. It aims both at the commissioning organisations and the scientists creating the scenario studies. In addition, it provides assistance for those who wish to evaluate and use energy scenarios, e.g. journalists, NGOs and the political decision-makers. Contributors: Felix, Höffler, Christoph, Mayer, Wolfgang, Weimer-Jehle
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17 Oct Flexibility concepts for the German power supply in 2050. Ensuring stability in the age of renewable energies

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2016
So-called flexibility technologies are necessary to balance the fluctuations naturally inherent to power generation from wind and photovoltaics. The various viable options include flexibly dispatchable power plants as well as storage systems or the balancing of power demand and power feed-in (demand-side management). The challenge is to identify the options combining stability, sustainability, cost efficiency and social acceptability.
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17 Oct Energy Vectors

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2015
Changes in energy procurement/uses have often followed differing ‘trajectories’ in different countries while being related by factors such as oil prices and climate change.  While these forces are still active, time-scales have shifted (e.g. for peak oil and gas). The Fukushima accident has recently shaken confidence into nuclear power. This Report proposes a robust methodology helping in situations of energy transition to make relevant choices on both economic and ecological levels. Focussing on the French situation, it defines Energy Vectors as the support system delivering energy in the form of electricity, petrol, gas, or heat, etc. to consumers and deals with the intermediary stage of vectors between energy sources (coal, gas, U, wind, hydro) and demand of final energy (for transport, heating, industrial processes, etc.). But end-consumers are often not aware of the source for the final energy they receive. Distinguishing between sources would allow economic and ecological competition (when C02 emissions carry a price-tag).  This report throws new light on the political decisions that must be taken and provides guidelines with a long-range relevance - the parametric structure allowing application to any given case. Group Leader: Gilbert Ruelle, Former Director of the Alstom Division Alternators, Honorary President of CREEBEL, and NATF Fellow
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17 Oct Methane

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
Strong variations of atmospheric concentrations of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, have accompanied glacial and interglacial periods. Such variations influence the timetable and magnitude of climate changes. The report describes and analyses natural and human-related sources and sinks of atmospheric methane with particular attention to potentially massive emissions from thawing permafrost in Arctic wetlands and marine methane hydrates (clathrates). The methane fluxes between main reservoirs and the atmosphere is measured via ground-based networks or from outer space, allowing a better understanding of evolving atmospheric concentrations and interaction between sinks and sources. As atmospheric methane is destroyed over time (half-life ~7 years), its CO2 equivalence, in terms of GHG-efficiency is not straight-forward, depending on the time-scale applied.  While increasing fossil fuel exploitation is an important methane source, emissions could be limited at reasonable cost.  Feedbacks from wetlands and soils are more difficult to control. A number of recommendations on how to limit methane release are made in areas such as agricultural practices, waste- and landfill management, biomass combustion, exploitation of coal, natural gas and oil. Carefully follow developments in boreal zones, especially regarding the possible exploitation of methane from permafrost and marine clathrates. Group Leader: Jean-Claude André, Former Director of the European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computing (CERFACS), and NATF Fellow
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17 Oct Report of the National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) – First contribution to the Energy Transition National Debate

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2014
Changes in world-wide energy production and utilisation are partly imposed (emerging countries’ energy needs, depletion of some oil/gas fields), or voluntarily implemented (energy autonomy, climate-change policy, industrial competition). France has launched a nation-wide debate on energy-policies with the participation of NATF. This document is a first contribution. It examines also the policy paths chosen respectively by the USA and Germany. Some of the EU 20-20-20, the EU “Roadmap to 2050”, as well as self-imposed energy targets can be achieved through demand-control and energy-efficiency, i.e. better (including older) building insulation, more efficient household appliances, direct heating, thermal solar panels, heat pumps, etc. While new urban areas need to be energy-lean with little commuting requirements, meeting these requirements has a price and needs societal commitment. Fossil fuels should be kept for transport and chemical industry sectors. Vehicles will increasingly use electricity or biofuels. Industrialists stabilise energy requirements through improvement of production processes. French nuclear power capacity will continue, but move to more flexibility, compensating for the intermittency of wind- and solar power. “Smart” grids and non-intermittent renewable energy sources should contribute to power stability. Total savings in French energy consumption could attain –15% by 2025 and –30% by 2050. The final goal is the reduction of the GHG emissions at the least cost. Working-group leader: Bernard Tardieu, Honorary President Coyne & Bellier, President of the Committee on Energy & Climate Change, and NATF Fellow
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17 Oct Technologies and Climate Change – Solutions for Mitigation and Adaptation

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
The report takes stock of available or future technologies for mitigating climate change. First conclusion: climate-engineering, in the current state of knowledge, is not an alternative. Then it identifies the most favourable conditions, especially in the most contributing sectors, for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and promoting preventive adaptation measures, including a carbon emission penalty. The cost of increased energy efficiency must be less than the value of the energy saved and, as the case may be, the worth of CO2 not emitted. The same cost-benefit analysis should apply for any mitigation technology considered. Preventive adaptation measures are possible in agriculture, forestry, energy, urban environment, manufacturing, coastal protection, access to safe water, resources management, etc. Moreover, involving civil society (lifestyles and behaviours) will play an important role in reducing GHG emissions. And we must not forget technologies in developing countries, which are often more vulnerable to climate change than the richer developed countries. Working-group leaders: Marion Guillou, President of the Board of the Agronomic, Veterinary and Forest Institute of France – AGREENIUM; and Alain Pavé, University professor and former Research director at CNRS – both are NATF Fellows
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17 Oct Biogas

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2016
The 14 members of the NATF working group on biogas published its report in early 2016.  Historically speaking, biogas, resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, has been known since the late 18th century, when Alessandro Volta analysed the composition of swamp gas, finding methane as the main component.  In France and India, the exploitation of this process through bacterial “fermentation” in digesters started in the late 19th century while China builds a whole infrastructure around biogas, but always on a local scale, taking advantage of carbon credits from European industry for their funding.  In Europe, the production of biogas on an industrial scale takes off somewhere between 1980 and 1990, while France joins in at a somewhat slower pace than some other countries
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