Author: administrateur

18 Oct Synthetic Biology: public dialogue on synthetic biology

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2009
This report presents the findings of an exploratory public dialogue project, commissioned by the Royal Academy of Engineering and conducted by People Science and Policy Ltd (PSP) to explore uninformed and informed perceptions of and attitudes to synthetic biology in the UK. This study was carried out to complement the Academy’s inquiry into synthetic biology, published in May 2009 (www.raeng.org.uk/synbio) which recommended that: “an active and ongoing public engagement programme must be established which creates platforms for various stakeholders and publics to share their views on both the potential benefits of synthetic biology and their concerns as the technology develops”.  This report gives an early and preliminary insight into public perceptions and reactions to synthetic biology and reveals some issues and themes worthy of further exploration. The findings also provide a baseline measure of awareness in the UK which will be useful for comparing changes over time.
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18 Oct Arable crops: a source of renewable raw materials

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
2010
Once the easily accessible reserves of oil are exhausted, plants will become increasingly important as an industrial resource. For this reason there will probably be a renaissance in wood, linseed, straw and other plant products as raw materials. The objective of research and development should be to optimise the practicability of production processes and the usefulness of the end products. There is a great need for research into the relatively new area of transgenic plants which could in some cases deliver specific high quality substances. We should be thinking about bio-refineries rather than oil refineries. Our most important task will be to improve public perception of such technologies and to consider the social consequences of introducing them and their implications for the overall safety of foodstuffs, not only in industrial nations but also in developing countries.
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18 Oct Synthetic biology – A new engineering science emerges

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW)
2011
Synthetic biology is the attempt to create cells with specific properties. It is about to establish itself as a new engineering science. This brochure wishes to help to expound the opportunities and risks presented by this scientific area about which very little is known by the general public as yet. The discipline is in its infancy, and the results that have been achieved to date seem rather to be an extension of previous work in genetic engineering. However, scientists have already succeeded in synthesizing a whole genome of a bacterium and introducing this into a foreign bacterial cell envelope. The “new” bacterium exhibits the properties of the introduced genes. Researchers are concentrating their efforts on the development of minimal cells. These contain only the essential genes needed for cell growth and are intended to serve as a chassis for other newly developed genes and functions. The brochure opens with a philosophical contemplation which provides a counterpoint to the scientific viewpoint by questioning the extent to which that which is living can be described, and thus engineered. In the other contributions, important concepts in synthetic biology are discussed and concepts introduced by which the complexity of biological systems can be reduced. This is an important prerequisite for their commercial exploitation.
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18 Oct Statement: Synthetic Biology

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2009
Based on the disciplines of biology, molecular biology, chemistry, biotechnology as well as information technology and engineering sciences, a new field of research is evolving, called synthetic biology. It has attracted special attention recently, also on an international basis. Synthetic biology can make an essential contribution to the gaining of knowledge in basic research. Beyond that, it opens up options for biotechnological applications in the medium term, i.e. in the area of new and improved diagnostic agents, vaccines and drugs as well as the development of new biosensors and biomaterials or even biofuels. Concurrently, the research area opens up new questions, e.g. about legal aspects in the context of biological safety or the protection from abuse; likewise, questions about the economic use and ethical aspects. Against this backdrop, the German Research Foundation (DFG), acatech, which is the German Academy for Science and Engineering, and the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina have pooled their strengths and crafted a joint statement on possible opportunities and risks of synthetic biology.
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18 Oct Promotion of Young Professionals in Science and Technology

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2009
The shortage of young people in numerous technical professions that can be ascertained at present has been foreseeable for some time owing to various societal trends and conditions—among which the demographical development ranks first. Usually, partial aspects or highly specialized questions are pursued in such surveys, generated as a rule from a discipline-specific perspective. Hence it is not only difficult to gain an overview of the broad range of literature but especially to comprehend the numerous and complex reasons for the shortage of young people as well as the possible interdependencies. acatech aims at the development of a comprehensive strategy for the targeted promotion of young people for entry into the engineering sciences. If one wants recommended actions and suggestions of promotional measures to be well founded, one has to identify and understand the complex reasons for the shortage of young people beforehand. Hence the experts of the “Platform” deal with the causes from a multidisciplinary and problem-oriented perspective and investigate the problems that were identified as urgent in the context of five topics.
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18 Oct Ratification of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine by the Polish Parliament

Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN)
2012
Letter of the President of PAS and the Chairman of the Committee on Biology of Reproduction of PAS to the Speaker of the Polish Parliament with regard to a legislative initiative on ratifying the Convention signed by the Republic of Poland.
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18 Oct Position paper 1/2012 of the Committee on Bioethics PAS of 15 March 2012

Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN)
2012
On ethical problems of reproductive medicine and clinical genetics requiring legal regulation (including in vitro fertilisation and the need of implementation of the Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on setting standards of quality and safety for the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells, Implementing Directives, Commission Directive 2006/17/EC of 8 February 2006 and Commission Directive 2006/86/EC as far as human embryos and gametes are concerned).
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18 Oct Position paper of the Committee on Bioethics PAS of 8 June 2012 on the admissibility of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in Poland)

Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN)
2012
On the directions in legal regulations concerning the application of in vitro fertilisation and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis technologies. The position paper indicates medical and ethical aspects as well as legal regulations in force in Poland and in other countries of European Union.
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18 Oct Biomedical engineering careers series practical engineering at the front line of the health service

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2012
Fellow students from his four-year MEng undergraduate course in biomedical engineering at Imperial College London are now in a very wide range of jobs, he says.
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18 Oct Establishing high-level evidence for the safety and efficacy of medical devices and systems

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2013
A summary of a roundtable forum held on 16 January 2013 hosted by the Royal Academy of Engineering and The Academy of Medical Sciences.
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