Author: administrateur

18 Oct A century of nuclear power production

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2009
France is a major player in nuclear physics and its applications, in particular in the electro-nuclear energy domain. The monograph is a widely accessible synthesis of the nuclear energy sector development in France. It describes the stakes of nuclear technologies and the challenges to overcome to make political and technical choices. The author analyses the importance of organisational structures and of the human factors to successfully develop programs and to overcome difficulties.
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18 Oct Concept for an Integrated Energy Research Program for Germany

National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)
2009
The Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, has commissioned acatech and the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina with the crafting of the concept for an integrated energy research program in autumn of 2008. The two academies were requested to identify the most important research questions between the apparently contradictory priorities of secure and affordable energy supply and the federal government’s climate protection goals. In so doing, the social, legal and economic aspects as well as questions of acceptance with regard to energy supply were to be addressed as well. Hence the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities as a representative of the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities was integrated for the crafting of an initial concept draft in which around 100 scientists from universities, non-university research institutes, industry as well as civil society participated.
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18 Oct Review of Ireland’s Energy Policy in the Context of the Changing Economy

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2009
This Report follows on from the Report on Future Energy Policy in Ireland published by the Irish Academy of Engineering in March 2006. The selected topics contained in the Report relate to areas of more immediate priority in the context of the changing economy. The Academy published a series of follow‐up, supplementary reports on energy matters over the next two years. This Report is based on the consensus view of the Irish Academy of Engineering’s Steering Committee on Energy (see inside back cover for details of the Committee). They were assisted in addressing this highly complex subject by a number of other parties, whose contribution is acknowledged on the inside back cover. The Report does not necessarily reflect the personal views of all the Academy members.
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18 Oct Irish Energy Policy – Update on Electricity Price Competitiveness

Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE)
2009
In June 2009 the Irish Academy of Engineering published a review of Ireland’s energy policy. This review was carried out in the context of the major changes taking place in Ireland’s economy and focussed especially on energy price competitiveness. In particular the review drew attention to the growing lack of competitiveness of Irish electricity prices when compared to EU averages and strongly suggested a re‐examination of government policies in light of the urgent need to restore the country’s international competitiveness. The Academy  updated its analysis based on Eurostat statistics for 2009.
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18 Oct Biofuels

National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF)
2010
At the beginning of the 21st century, France has decided to develop its industrial channels related to the production of 1st generation of biofuels, from agricultural fields to transformation plants. These channels include cereal and beet cultures and storage for the production of ethanol as well as colza and sunflowers for the production of vegetal oils. Ethanol and vegetal oils can replace respectively gasoline and diesel after their chemical transformation. Thermochemical processes related to such transformations and their economics are discussed. The report describes also the potential use of agricultural wastes and forestry, which would not compete with the above mentioned agricultural products intended for food. These 2nd generation biofuels are under development and should be operational and in use after 2020.
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18 Oct CO2 capture and storage: inevitable for a climate friendly Belgium

Belgium Academies (ARB)
2010
In industrial installations, but also for power production, it will be difficult or impossible to avoid the use of fossil fuels in the short to medium future. It is exactly for these applications that CCS can be applied to drastically reduce the emission of CO2. The industry in Belgium is CO2 intensive and CO2 capture appears therefore as an inevitable option to meet environmental goals without jeopardizing general well-fare. All capture activities are to be balanced by geological storage, and the potential for that is uncertain in Belgium. Transport of CO2, by pipeline or ship, is however relatively cheap and efficient, even over distances of several hundreds of kilometers. It is therefore reassuring that the European storage potential is sufficiently large for large scale CCS activities throughout the EU. Nevertheless, it is highly recommendable to start exploration for domestic storage reservoirs. CO2 capture and storage is a climate friendly measure that does not need sustained financial support to be viable. After a relatively short commercialization phase the Emission Trading System (ETS) price of CO2 will by itself be a sufficient economic stimulus. Nevertheless, early support is crucial for fast and large-scale application of CCS. Therefore, this report includes recommendations that should lead to a clear energy policy that includes CCS and public funding for a correctly balanced public-private investment scheme for essential developments that will contribute to the common good. CCS is not a perfect solution. The option of CCS would not be on the table, were it not essential and inevitable. This is true for the world as a whole, but also for Belgium and its regions Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels-Capital.
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18 Oct Generating the Future: UK energy systems fit for 2050

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2010
This report, produced by a working group of Fellows of The Royal Academy of Engineering, considers possible energy scenarios that could meet the 2050 emissions reduction target. Four scenarios are explored. They describe the whole energy system in broad brush strokes and are illustrative rather than prescriptive, identifying the principal components of the system and contributing towards a better systems level understanding of the most salient issues.  The report concludes that turning the theoretical emissions reduction targets into reality will require the biggest peacetime programme of change ever seen in the UK.  While the market will be the vehicle for technological and business solutions, the combined challenges of climate change, security of supply and affordability call for a more directed approach from government.
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18 Oct Nuclear Lessons Learned

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) (RAEng)
2010
This report constitutes the first phase of a larger project that will investigate the lessons to be learned from recent and current nuclear build projects that are relevant to new power station projects in the UK. In this context, the current report represents the academic summary of literature and information available to date.  This review identifies the following lessons: 1. Follow-on replica stations are cheaper than first-of-a-kind. 2. The design must be mature and licensing issues resolved prior to start of construction. 3. Establish a highly-qualified team to develop the design, secure the safety case, plan the procurement and build schedule in detail in collaboration with main contractors. 4. Ensure that sub-contractors are of high quality and experienced in nuclear construction or are taught the necessary special skills and requirements for quality, traceability and documentation. 5. Establish and maintain good communications with the community local to the site.
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